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## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Differential Signaling' - Pat_Xavi

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### 8b/10b encoding and background

Agenda

- Differential Signaling Definition
- Voltage Parameters
- Common mode parameters
- Differential mode parameters
- Current mode logic (CML) buffer
- Relate to parameters
- Modeling & simulation
- Timing parameters
- Clock recovery
- Embedded clock
- AC coupling
- Common mode response
- Issues with simulation
- 8B10B encoding
- DC balanced codes
- Duty Cycle distortion
- Cycle

Differential Signaling

Single Ended Signaling

- All electrical signal circuits require a loop or return path.
- Single ended signal subject several means of distortions and noise.
- Ground or reference may move due to switching currents (SSO noise). We touched on this in the ground conundrum class.
- A single ended receiver only cares about a voltage that is referenced to its own ground.
- Electromagnetic interference can impose voltage on a single ended signal.
- Signal passing from one board to another are subject to the local ground disturbance.
- We can counteract many of these effect by adding more ground.
- As frequencies increase beyond 1GHz, 80% of the signal will be lost.

Differential Signaling

Vss

Short line

Vref

Vss

Rx1

Long line

Vref

Vss

Rx2

Review of threshold sensitivity- The wave is referenced to either Vcc or Vss. Consequently the effective DC value of the wave will be tied to one of these rails.
- The wave is attenuated around the effective DC component of the waveform, but the reference does not change accordingly. Hence the clock trigger point between various clock load points is very sensitive to distortion and attenuation.

Tx

Differential Signaling

Differential Signaling

- Any signal can be considered a loop is completed by two wires.
- One of the “wires” in single ended signaling is the “ground plane”
- Differential signaling uses two conductors
- The transmitter translates the single input signal into a pair
- of outputs that are driven 180° out of phase.
- The receiver, a differential amplifier, recovers the signal as the difference in the voltages on the two lines.
- Advantages of differential signaling can be summed up as follows
- Differential Signaling is not sensitive to SSO noise.
- A differential receiver is tolerant of its ground moving around.
- If each “wire” of pair is on close proximity of one and other. electromagnetic interference imposes the same voltage on both signals. The difference cancels out the effect.
- Since the AC currents in the “wires” are equal but opposite and proximal, radiated EMI is reduced.
- Signals passing from one board to another are not subject to the local ground disturbances.
- As frequencies increase beyond 1GHz, up to 80% of the signal may be lost, but difference still crosses 0 volts.
- There are still loss issues for differential signaling but only come into play in high loss system. Most single ended systems assume approximately 15% channel loss.

Differential Signaling

Differential Signaling - Cons

- The cost is doubling the signal wires, but this may not be so bad as compared to adding grounds to improve single ended signaling.
- Routing constraint: Pair signals need to be routed together.
- Differential signal have certain symmetry requirements that may pose routing challenges.

Differential Signaling

Differential Signal Parameters

- Voltage on line 1 = a
- Voltage on line 2 = b
- Differential voltage d = a-b
- Common mode voltage c= (a+b)/2
- Odd mode signal, o = (a-b)/2
- Even mode signal, e = (a+b)/2
- Signal on line 1 a = e+o
- Signal on line 2 b = e-o
- Useful relations; o = d/2; e = c

Line 1

Line 2

Reference

Differential Signaling

Propagation Terms to Consider

- Differential mode propagation
- Common mode propagation
- Single ended mode (uncoupled) propagation
- This is when the other line is not driven but terminated to absorbed reflections.
- Transmission line matrixes will reflect these modes.

Differential Signaling

Differential Impedance

- Coupling between lines in a pair always decreases differential impedance
- Differential impedance is always less that 2 times the uncoupled impedance
- Differential impedance of uncoupled lines is 2 times the uncoupled impedance.

Differential Signaling

Propagation Velocities

- For TEM structures, (striplines)
- Differential mode, Common Mode, and single ended velocities are the same
- For Non TEM and Quasi-TEM structures (microstrip)
- Differential mode, Common Mode, and single ended velocities and impedances are not the same.
- Common mode can be converted to differential mode at a receiver and result in a differential signal disturbance.

Differential Signaling

Example of Common Mode

- Line 1 and line 2 have the same DC offset.
- This is DC common mode.
- It can be defined as an average DC for time duration of many UI cycles value as well.
- Line1 and line 2 have the same AC offset
- This is AC common mode
- AC common mode also result from time differences (skew) between signal on line 1 and line 2. This can result in AC common mode and differential signal loss.
- The following slide will be used to clarify the above

Differential Signaling

Differential Signaling Basics

- For long channels, at GHz frequencies, signal tend look like sine waves.
- The artificial offset common to line 1 and 2 has an average of 1 and varies around that average by +/-0.1 in a period manor.

Differential Signaling

Individual signals

- Devices need to have enough common mode dynamic voltage range to receive or transmit the waveforms. In this case the signals swing between -0.1 and 2.1.
- The sine wave amplitude is 1 and peak to peak is 2.
- Signal a and b is what would be observed with 2 oscilloscope probes

Differential Signaling

Differential Mode Signal

- The differential amplitude is 2 and peak to peak is 4 which is 2 times the individual signal peak to peak amplitude.
- Notice the distortions are gone.

Differential Signaling

Common Mode Signal

- The DC common mode signal is 1
- The AC common mode signal is .2 v peak to peak
- Some may specifications may call this 0.1 v peak from the DC average
- We will add this common mode to the signals “a” and “b”

Differential Signaling

Add 150 ps skew to signal b

- Waveforms do not look so good.
- We even have what appears to be non-monotonic behavior.

Differential Signaling

Differential signal looks OK

- However we lost differential signal amplitude.
- It used to be 4 peak to peak and now is 3.562.

Differential Signaling

Common mode measurements are different

- Average is still 1. Peak to peak is 0.944 but peak is 0.504
- AC common mode signals can be converted to differential

Differential Signaling

An escape from a BGA or connector pinsintroduces skew

This is an example of skew compensation

PWB structures that introduce SkewDifferential Signaling

Bends introduce skew

Back to back bendscompensate for skew from frequencies below 2 GHz.

Back to back bendscompensate for skew from frequencies below 2 GHz.

Differential Signaling

More Terms: Balanced and Unbalanced

- Good Agilent Technologies article on balance and unbalanced signaling
- http://we.home.agilent.com/upload/cmc_upload/tmo/downloads/EPSG084733.pdf
- Unbalanced signaling in reference to ground
- Balanced signaling is referenced only to the other port terminal.
- If each channel is identical, then this suggests a virtual AC ground between the two terminals. It is often useful to allow this AC ground to be a DC voltage to biasing devices.

Differential Signaling

Ethernet 10/100BASE-T example

Filter

Transformer

50 W

50 W

50 W

50 W

Common-mode choke

Balanced

Unbalanced

Differential Signaling

Low Voltage Differential Signaling: LVDS

- 200MHz – 500 MHz Range
- Published by IEEE in 1995
- Lacks robustness for GHz Signaling
- Well suite distributing system clocks
- Good noise margin
- Common mode impedance has wide range provide buffer design flexibility
- Differential impedance is optimize around 100 W
- Differential receiver switching thresholds are tighter than for single ended logic.
- Most device require external termination and bias resistors
- Does not have capacitance or package spec. This severely limits GHz operation

Differential Signaling

Current Mode Logic

- Emerging technology
- No real spec yet but can infer operation from spec’s like PCI Express™ , Infiniband™, USB, SATA, etc.
- Tx and Rx lines are separate
- The Tx driver steers current between the differential terminals
- AC coupling between Tx and Rx with a series capacitor provides common mode design flexibility
- Termination is in buffers. This may require compensation or a band gap reference to insure a tight resistance range.

Differential Signaling

Example of Simple CML Differential Behavioral Circuit

This exponent determines wave shape

Vcc

Balance between for FET switch

I_source

Positive Terminal

This switch time offset

Negative Terminal

r_termp,

C_term

r_termn,

C_term

2nd lecture

Differential Signaling

Vss

I_source

Example of Sensitivities: I, balance, CMore prominent for faster edges

Differential Signaling

Serial Differential

- GHz transmission will have many UI’s of data in transit on the interconnect at any points in time.
- Hence it becomes useful to think of this as serial data transmission.
- Often multiple single channels are ganged in parallel to achieve even higher data throughput.

Differential Signaling

AC coupling issues

- Series capacitors can build up charge difference between differential terminals for the following reasons.
- Unequal numbers of zero and ones
- Duty cycle (UI) distortion.
- The solution is to use a data code that is “DC” balanced.
- 8B10B (8 bit 10 bit) with disparity is one such code
- Tight UI control is a basic requirement for keeping the signal eye open

Differential Signaling

Eye Diagram

- The eye diagram is a convenient way to represent what a receiver will see as well as specifying characteristics of a transmitter.
- The eye diagram maps all UI intervals on top of one and other.
- The opening in eye diagram is measure of signal quality.
- This is the simplest type of eye diagram. The are other form which we will discuss later

Eye Diagram

Differential Signaling

Creating eye diagram

- Plot periodic voltage time ramps (saw tooth waves) on x verses the voltage wave on Y.
- Can be done with Avanwaves expression calculator and can be saved in a configuration file.

Differential Signaling

Create ramp with expression builder

Start of relative eye position

Time of eye start

Unit Interval

Differential Signaling

Voltage and period volt-time ramp

Differential Signaling

Clocking

- The one thing omitted in the suggests in the previous slides on eye diagrams was the “chop” frequency.
- We assumed it was UI. This is simple for simulation. Time marches along and all signals start out synchronized in time. This is not true for real measurement since edges will significantly jitter and make it difficult to determinate where the exact UI is positioned.
- Presently, there are basically two forms of GHz+ clocking
- Embedded clocking
- Forwarded clocking

Differential Signaling

Embedded clocking

- This what is used in Fiber Channel, Gigabit Ethernet, PCI Express, Infiniband, SATA, USB, etc.
- The clock is extracted from the data
- There is requirement that data transitions are at a minimum rate. 8B/10B guarantees this. We discuss this in more detail later.
- A phase interpolator is normally used to extract the clock from the data. We discussed the phase interpolator in the clocking class. The phase interpolator is tied to the PCI Express-like jitter spec: Median and Jitter outlier.

Differential Signaling

Jitter Median and Outlier Spec

- Eye opening is defined from a stable UI.
- Jitter median used to determine a stable UI
- It is used as a reference to determine eye opening
- Jitter Outlier is used to guarantee limits of operation

UI

Jitter outlier

Jitter Median

Eye diagram

Differential Signaling

Forwarded Clocking

- The Tx clock is sourced and received down stream. The clock is a Tx data buffer synchronized with the Tx data bits.
- A synchronization or training sequence on a data line is used to adjust the receiver clock so that it is in phase synchronization with the data.
- The caveat is that the actual data clock lags the real data by a few cycles.
- The whole idea is that the jitter introduced over these cycles would be smaller than the jitter associated with two the PLLs used to provide base clocks for an embedded clock design.

Differential Signaling

Aspects of AC coupling

- We will explore issues with AC coupling with a simulation example.
- First we will create a simple CML differential model
- Next we will tie it to a differential transmission line and a terminator.
- Assignment 7 is to reproduce these effects with a HSPICE program. The output Avanwaves with a power point story summary what you will hand in.
- The basis for our work will be last semesters testckt.sp deck

Differential Signaling

Behavioral Data Model – Example

3rd lecture

12 bit of repeating data010101 001001 … v(t) data

UI = 500 psTr=Tf=100ps

Wave shape*

Rterm=50

Cterm=0.25pf

Vswing = 800 mV

I=Vswing/(50||50)/2

* Refer to first course

Differential Signaling

AC coupled Differential Circuit

AC coupling caps are normally larger, but are scaled down to illustrate common mode effects

0 to 1V

Differential Signaling

No initial conditions on DC blocking caps

- 300 ns of simulation time!
- Cblkn pkg2_nb pkg2_n 1nf $ic=400mv
- Cblkp pkg2_pb pkg2_p 1nf $ic=400mv
- 101010 101010 repeating 12 bit pattern

Reproduce this at package 2 (receiver)

Differential

Single ended

Differential Signaling

Set IC to Vswing/2

Reproduce this at package 2 (receiver)

Differential

Single ended

Differential Signaling

Not completely fixed

- Initial voltage for D+ and D+ is not 0 so there is a step response when the wave reaches the receiver.
- We can fix this by multiplying both “n” and “p” control waves for the VCR (voltage controlled resistor) by 0 for the first cycle.
- This forces the DC solution at the other end of the line to 0 volts differential.

Differential Signaling

Insure both legs start at same voltage

Qualifying voltage

Qualifying voltagen control voltage

Qualifying voltagep control voltage

Differential Signaling

Results – Pretty good

- May have to ignore first 1-2 cycles

Reproduce this at package 2 (receiver)

Differential

Single ended

Differential Signaling

Now lets change bit pattern

Reproduce this at package 2 (receiver)

- 100000001010
- The pattern creates a DC charge to be built up in the cap
- The solution is to create a code that has equal amount of 1’s and zeros. This is the rational for 8bit 10 bit (8b10b) coding

Differential

Single ended

Differential Signaling

Crossing Offset

- The crossing offset is the horizontal line that is in the vertical center of the eye and it should be at 0 volts for a differential signal.
- The amount of offset is the average DC value. A simple approximation is one minus the ratio of one’s to zeros times the received vswing/2.
- This does not included edge shape effects

Differential Signaling

Repeat patterns of 5 ones and 6 zeros

Approx. offset

Reproduce this at package 2 (receiver)

Hint: start eye diagram at 200 ns

Differential Signaling

Courtesy of Scott Gardiner, Intel

8b/10b - Simple Scheme

- The encoding is comprehended in a set of tables which conform to a set of predetermined “rules”
- Helpful Hint: Complete tables that give all the literal 10b encodings do exist- and they comprehend all of the encoding rules…
- 8 bits are encoded into 10 bits

Differential Signaling

8b/10b: Overview

- The 10 bits are referred to as a “symbol” or a “code-group:”
- The original 8 bits are broken into a 3 bit block and a 5 bit block (each of these are called sub-blocks)
- F111110001
- The 3 bit sub-block (labeled HGF) is encoded into 4 new bits (labeled fghj) & the 5 bit sub-block (EDCBA) is encoded into 6 new bits (abcdei)
- HGFEDCBAnotation commonly represents the un-encoded bits, and abcdeifghj represents the encoded bits; note that the relative order and position of the sub-blocks is switched upon encoding
- HGFEDCBA abcdeifghj
- Hence, an extra bit,j, is added to the newly encoded 3 bit block and an extra bit,i, to the encoded 4 bit block creating a 4 and 5 bit sub-blocks

Differential Signaling

8b/10b – Character Conventions

- Both Data Characters and Special Control Characters exist; (nomenclature: D.a.b & K.a.b)
- D/K = Signifies Data or Control
- a = 5 bit block to be encoded
- b = 3 bit block to be encoded
- Set of Available Data and Control Characters
- Data (D.a.b)
- D0.0-D31.0, D0.1-D031.1, .... D0.7 – D31.7
- All 256 Possible 8-bit Data characters (00 through FF HEX)
- Control (K.a.b)
- K28.0 – K28.7, K23.7, K27.7, K29.7, K30.7

Differential Signaling

8b/10b - DC balancing & Disparity

- Never more than 5 consecutive 1’s or 0’s allowed in a row (consecutively)..i.e. the maximum “run rate” is 5 to maintain a DC balanced transmission.
- This guarantees the lowest frequency to be 1/10 of the max frequency. i.e. only 1 decade data bandwidth required.
- With 8b/10b, either positive (RD+) or negative (RD-) disparity encoding is possible

Differential Signaling

8b/10b - Disparity

- Disparity is “the difference between the number of ones and zeros...positive and negative disparity refer to an excess of ones or zeros respectively”.
- Note: neutral disparity is said to occur when RD+ and RD- encoding are identical- meaning they will each have the same number of ones and zeros (there are some exceptions)
- A given sub-block or symbol can have an actual disparity number of either a zero (neutral), +2 or –2, though the Running Disparity is said only to be Positive, Negative or Neutral.

Differential Signaling

8b/10b – Running Disparity

- The Running or Current Disparity (a binary value of + or -) is tracked by the TX/RX and is computed at every sub-block boundary and at each symbol boundary.
- The value from one sub-block or symbol is used with that of the next sub-block or symbol to give a “running” or “current” status.

Differential Signaling

8b/10b – Running Disparity Algorithm

- For a given encoding of a byte, the starting disparity is what existed at the end of the previous symbol
- The running disparity is then calculated first for the 6 bit sub-block, comprehending the starting disparity value;
- The 6 bit sub block disparity valueis then used as the starting disparity when the running disparity calculated for the 4 bit sub-block
- The running disparity for the entire 10 bit symbol is now the same as the running disparity found at the end of the 4 bit sub-block (and the running disparity at the beginning of the next symbol /6 bit sub-block is the same as that found at the end of the this symbol)
- Again, a given sub-block or symbol can have an actual disparity number of either a zero (neutral), +2 or –2, though the Running Disparity is only said to be Positive, Negative or Neutral.

Differential Signaling

8b/10b - Running Disparity Calculation Algorithm:

- Assumptions: The 8b to 10b encoding has already been done; A current disparity value is already assumed
- Process: Calculate the disparity for the leftmost 6 bits first, keeping in mind the current disparity value before entering the algorithm. Then calculate the disparity for the rightmost 4 bits keeping in mind the disparity value determined after analyzing the previous 6 bits. The disparity for both the 6-bit and the 4-bit blocks should be calculated as follows:

Differential Signaling

8b/10b - Running Disparity Calculation Method

- Method:

If # of 1’s > 0’s

Disparity = Positive (1)

Else if # of 0’s > 1’s

Disparity = Negative (0)

Else if 6-bit = 000111

Then Disparity = Positive (1)

Else if 6-bit = 111000

Then Disparity = Negative (0)

Else if 4-bit = 0011

Then Disparity = Positive (1)

Else if 4-bit = 1100

Then Disparity = Negative (0)

Else Disparity = Disparity (if none of the above, then the disparity value doesn’t change)

Note: Assuming a encoding, more 1’s across the entire 10b code yields positive

disparity, more 0’s yields negative disparity, and even #’s of 1’s and 0’s yields neutral disparity

(i.e. disparity is the same as it was before).

Differential Signaling

8b/10b - Disparity & Encoding Example:

- Transmitter keeps running track of current disparity (it is either RD, RD+ or neutral)
- Neutral means the disparity tracker keeps the previous RD- or RD+ value
- A Running Disparity of RD+ is always followed by an RD- encoding and vice versa
- If Running Disparity is RD+, the following is encoded for the data byte F1:

HGF EDCBA abcdei fghj

- 11110001 1000110111(RD- encoding)
- If Running Disparity is RD-, the following is encoded for the data byte F1:

HGF EDCBA abcdei fghj

- 111 10001 100011 0001(RD+ encoding)

Differential Signaling

8b/10b - Disparity & Encoding Example:

- Note that the number of ones and zeros in the currently chosen encoding works to balance out the offset in the number of ones and zeroes (tracked by the Running Disparity value) from the previous encoding
- I.E. : Don’t confuse the definition of Positive Disparity with the RD+ encoding choice!
- Positive Disparity means there is a current running total of more onesthan zeros!
- Thus, an RD+ encoding generally has more zeros thanones!
- Also note that it is possible that the 4-bit sub-block of a RD- or RD+ symbol encoding can yield a negative or positive disparity, respectively thus forcing more than one RD- encoding to be used consecutively…

Differential Signaling

Summary: Example conversion

HEX Data Byte (8b) to be Encoded

F1

OR

Binary Data Byte (8b) to be Encoded

1111 0001

10b Encoded symbol (RD-)

10b Encoded symbol (RD+)

100011 0001

100011 0111

Differential Signaling

Possible Patterns…

- Repeating Comma [K28.5] Pattern (RD- followed by RD+):
- 001111 1010110000 0101001111 1010110000 0101

(RD-) (RD+) (RD-) (RD+)

6 bit encoding starts with an RD- and uses an positive disparity encoding….6 bits encoding yields an RD+…..4-bit encoding starts with a RD +…4-bit encoding picks a negative (or neutral encoding) and thus yields a neutral and thus keeps the RD+. Checks out….

- Low Frequency Pattern?? (D30.0 (RD- followed by RD-)
- 011110 0100011110 0100011110 0100011110 0100

(RD-) (RD-) (RD-) (RD-)

- 100001 1011100001 1011100001 1011100001 1011

(RD+) (RD+) (RD+) (RD+)

Differential Signaling

Possible Patterns…

- High transition density/frequency pattern:
- D21.5 (RD- followed by RD+)
- 101010 1010101010 1010101010 1010101010 1010

(RD-) (RD+) (RD-) (RD+)

- Low transition density pattern:
- K28.7 (RD-) & D24.3 (RD+) (although K28.7 is reserved....)
- 001111 1000001111 1000001100 1100001111 1000001100 1100

(RD-) (RD+) (RD-) (RD+)

- D24.6 (RD-) & D24.6 (RD+)
- 1100110110001100011011001101100011000110

(RD-) (RD+) (RD-) (RD+)

- Composite pattern:
- D30.7 (RD-) & D13.7 (RD-)
- 011110 0001101100 1000011110 0001101100 1000

(RD-) (RD-) (RD-) (RD-)

Differential Signaling

References

- Infiniband Architecture Release Specification 1.0
- October 24, 2000, Volume 2, Section 5.2x (beginning with page 66)
- Franaszek & Widmer (IBM) Patent # 4,486,739
- December 4, 1984, Byte Oriented DC Balanced 8B/10B Partitioned Block Transmission Code
- 3GIO Architecture Specification- Key Developer Draft
- August 21, 2001, Appendix C, pg148-154
- ANSI X3.230-1994, clause 11 (and also IEEE 802.3z, 36.2.4).

Differential Signaling

Other sources of common mode

- A DC voltage will build up across the blocking capacitor if the charge and discharge is not equal.
- We have see this can happen if the number of bits is unbalance.
- Another source of imbalance is possible if the duty cycle of the one and zeros is not 50%.
- This can happen in two ways
- The time for a one differs from that of a zero. This can be caused by edge jitter.
- The rising time and falling time are miss matched
- On the next slide we will take our example with 101010101010 pattern and change the rise time to 50 ps and fall time to 150 ps for the single ended signals

Differential Signaling

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