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Second Semester Final Review . Renaissance and Reformation (China, Japan, Americas). End of the Middle Ages (10.4-10.5). Black Death (Bubonic Plague): Black death killed off many peasants – those that remained were in high demand and could charge for their labor.

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Second semester final review

Second Semester Final Review

Renaissance and Reformation

(China, Japan, Americas)

End of the middle ages 10 4 10 5
End of the Middle Ages (10.4-10.5)

  • Black Death (Bubonic Plague):

    • Black death killed off many peasants – those that remained were in high demand and could charge for their labor.

    • Peasants used the money they gained to move to towns and live better lives.

  • Magna Carta:

    • Document created by a group of nobles in order to limit the kings’ power – King John is forced to sign.

    • People could not be kept in jail w/out a reason.

  • Reconquista:

    • The successful effort by Christian kingdoms in Europe to rid Spain of the Moors (Muslims) that controlled portions of southern Spain.

Renaissance themes 11 2 11 3
Renaissance Themes (11.2-11.3)

  • Renaissance = Revival or Rebirth.

    • Period after the end of the Middle Ages where Europe began to flourish again.

  • Humanism:

    • Belief that every individual has dignity, worth, power.

    • Celebrating human (individual) achievements.

    • Emphasis on well-rounded education – exploring natural world, as well as history, literature, etc.

  • Revival of the Classics:

    • Renewed interest in all things Greek and Roman.

    • Greek/Roman art, literature, philosophy, etc. becomes popular.

    • Many Greek/Roman works come to Europe as Byzantine Christians fled from attacking Muslim Turks.

Reformation of christianity 12 1
Reformation of Christianity (12.1)

  • Catholic Church = corrupt during Middle Ages

    • Relics (religious artifacts)

    • Simony (selling church positions)

    • Indulgences (buying forgiveness from sins)

      • * Indulgences could also be purchased for a loved one who

        may have died and might be suffering in purgatory.

  • Martin Luther:

    • Luther begins reformation by the posting of his “Ninety-Five Theses” on the church door in Wittenberg, Germany.

    • Many people support the ideas of Martin Luther because they too were unhappy with the church.

All ways the church used power to earn more money.

Martin luther 12 1
Martin Luther (12.1)

  • Luther establishes the following ideas:

    • Salvation by Faith Alone – the Church taught that salvation was achieved through faith and good works (overseen by the Church).

    • All men should read the Bible themselves – the Church taught that the Bible needed to be “interpreted” for common people by the clergy.

      • Martin Luther translates Bible into German for common people to read.

  • Timeline of Martin Luther:

    • Posts Ninety-Five Theses on the door of the Wittenberg church.

    • German Bishops send Luther’s writings to Pope Leo X.

    • Luther is called before the Diet of Worms to recant (take back) his ideas.

    • Luther is labeled as a heretic and excommunicated by the Pope.

    • Luther spends 1 year hiding in the castle of King Frederick.

Other reformers 12 1
Other Reformers (12.1)

  • William Tyndale:

    • Begins the reformation in England.

    • Believed all people should be able to read the Bible for themselves in their own language.

    • Translated the Bible into English.

  • John Calvin:

    • Developed the idea of “predestination” – the idea that God knew before someone was born whether they would achieve salvation.

  • King Henry VIII:

    • Only protestant reformer to break with the church for personal (rather than religious) reasons.

    • Split from Catholic Church because the Pope would not grant him a divorce from his wife.

    • Begins the Anglican Church of England.

Catholic church vs protestants
Catholic Church vs. Protestants

Catholic ChurchProtestants



Catholic Church (Clergy)

Catholic Church (Clergy)

Common Man

Common Man

Effects of the reformation 12 2
Effects of the Reformation (12.2)

  • Catholic Spain:

    • Catholic church remained strong in Spain and protestants did not take root.

    • Spanish monarchs establish the Spanish Inquisition (traveling court) to seek out and punish (by death) any Muslims, Jews or heretics (such as Protestants) in Spain.

    • Spanish Inquisition = eliminated all opposition to the Catholic Church.

Catholic counter reformation 12 2
Catholic “Counter” Reformation (12.2)

  • Catholic “Counter” Reformation:

    • Catholic church begins efforts to reform on their own terms (without “giving in” to protestants)

    • Council of Trent:

      • Meeting of Catholic Church officials in 1545 to try to create reforms.

      • Established clearly the teachings of the Catholic Church (as separate from Protestants).

The fight against protestants 12 2
The Fight Against Protestants (12.2)

  • Catholic Church tries to prevent Protestantism from spreading:

    • Created religious courts to punish protestants (Italy).

    • Created a list of books considered “dangerous” (those written by protestants) and threatened to excommunicate anyone who read them.

    • Creating new religious orders (like Jesuits) to help spread Catholic teachings.

Catholic missionaries 12 2
Catholic Missionaries (12.2)

  • Catholic missionaries

    • Many Catholics wanted to help the church grow rather than work to change the church.

    • Goal = to spread Catholicism around the world.

    • Many of the Catholic missionaries = Jesuits.

Religious divisions 12 3
Religious Divisions (12.3)

  • France:

    • Most French people are Catholic, but some are protestants (Huguenots) – conflict between two groups.

    • French king decides to outlaw Huguenots in France and eliminate all Protestants – tensions between Catholics and Protestants grow, fighting increases.

    • French king decides to allow Protestants back into France, but only in select locations.

    • St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre – 3,000 protestants killed in Paris by Catholic rioters.

    • Edict of Nantes – Edict given by king allowing religious freedom in most of France – protestants allowed in most places (except Paris and a few other cities).

Religious divisions con t 12 3
Religious Divisions – con’t (12.3)

  • 30 Years War:

    • Began as a conflict in Bohemia where Protestants were outlawed – as a result, angry Protestants killed several church leaders and sparked a conflict.

    • War quickly spread throughout Europe – leading to a series of wars known as the Thirty Years’ War.

    • Eventually lead to the Treaty of Westphalia:

      • Allowed rulers to determine whether their countries would be Catholic or Protestant.

      • Made Germany independent – Holy Roman Empire no longer existed.

Scientific revolution 13 1
Scientific Revolution (13.1)

  • Inspired by the revival of the classics found during the Renaissance.

    • Greek thinkers emphasized the use of observation and logic.

  • Greek ideas were preserved through translations done by Muslim scholars.

Scientific thinkers 13 1
Scientific Thinkers (13.1)

  • Important scientific figures:

    • Ptolemy – ancient astronomer and geographer/map maker = work based on observations of the world.

    • Nicolaus Copernicus - developed the notion that the earth (and all planets) orbit the sun.

    • Sir Isaac Newton – English scientist who developed the law of gravity, and two other laws of motion which explained how the physical world worked.

    • Galileo Galilei– first person to study the sky with a telescope and to set-up experiments to test theories.

Theories on the universe 12 2
Theories on the Universe (12.2)

  • Theories on the universe change:

    • Ptolemy (Greek) believed that the planets orbit around the earth – earth is the center of the universe.

    • Copernicus observes that the planets (including earth) actually rotate around the sun.

    • Copernicus concludes that planets move in predictable, oval orbits around the sun.

Science and the church
Science and the Church

  • Church authority = based upon the idea that the church is “infallible” (never wrong).

  • Scientific study was creating proof that some of the Church’s teachings about the world were incorrect – thus threatening the Church’s legitimacy and power.

  • Trial of Galileo:

    • Galileo is tried by the Inquisition because of a book he published about the planets orbiting the sun – the Church said that the earth was the center of the universe.

Age of exploration 16 1
Age of Exploration (16.1)

  • Why Europeans began to explore:

    • To acquire Asian spices (and other goods) for trade in Europe.

    • To learn about new lands and people.

    • To convert the whole of the world to Christianity.

  • Key explorers:

    • Christopher Columbus – expedition funded by Queen Isabella of Spain to find a new route to Asia, but landed in the Caribbean instead.

    • Francisco Pizarro – Conquistador explorer who conquered the Inca Empire.

    • Hernan Cortez – Conquistador explorer who conquered the Aztec Empire.

    • Ferdinand Magellan – though he died on the voyage, his men are best known for the first “circumnavigation” (going all the way around) of the globe.

Columbian exchange 16 2
Columbian Exchange (16.2)

  • Columbian Exchange = exchange of plants, animals and ideas between the Old World (Europe) and the New World (Americas).

    • European nations set-up colonies to acquire raw materials (wood, cotton, furs, etc.)

Enlightenment 17 1
Enlightenment (17.1)

  • Enlightenment: Time period in European history where peoples’ thoughts about philosophy, society and politics were guided by “reason.”

  • Enlightenment develops the idea of “progress” from the Renaissance idea of Humanism.

  • Just like scientists during the Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment thinkers used observations to discover the “natural laws” of the world.

Enlightenment 17 2
Enlightenment (17.2)

  • In the 1600’s – Europe was dominated by kings, queens and emperors (Monarchy).

  • Enlightenment begins to influence several monarchs in Europe – many monarchs begin to change the way they ruled in order to benefit the commoners = Enlightened Despots.

Enlightenment thinkers 17 2
Enlightenment Thinkers (17.2)

  • John Locke – English philosopher who believed that all people had “natural rights” like the right to life, liberty and property.

  • Montesquieu – Built upon John Locke’s ideas to create the idea of government that is divided into branches with a “separation of power” to avoid any one person/group having too much power.

  • Rousseau – Believed that government should express the will of the people = “popular sovereignty.”