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  2. PAGE 1 LITERARY ELEMENTS Point of view Irony Mood Setting Characterization Protagonist Symbol Allusion theme 10. Conflict 11. Metaphor 12. Hyperbole 13. Alliteration 14. Personification 15. onomatopoeia

  3. LITERARY ELEMENTS PAGE 2 FOR NUMBER 1-6 CHOOSE FROM THESE TERMS: Idiom Allusion Personification Oxymoron Irony simile FOR NUMBER 7-13 CHOOSE FROM THESE TERMS: Onomatopoeia Metaphor allusion Imagery Idiom Characterization Foreshadowing


  5. Are you correct? Literary Terms Page 2 0xymoron 2. Idiom 3. Personification 4. Simile 5. Allusion 6. Irony 7. Metaphor 8. Idiom 9. Characterization 10. Imagery 11. Onomatopoeia 12. Foreshadowing 13. Allusion 14. Diction 15. Hyperbole 16. Theme 17. Metaphor

  6. Adorn – to enhance or decorate Attache – assistant to an ambassador or other high official Clutch – to grasp and hold tight Restrain – to hold back; to control Prodigy – a person with an exceptional talent Subtle – slight, difficult to detect Liable – likely to Naturalist – one who studies living things, especially plants or animals, by observing them directly Arresting – demanding the attention; striking REVIEW PAGE 3

  7. VOCABULARY Sober – to make or become serious and quiet Forfeit – to lose as a penalty for some error or failure Veranda – a long porch, usually with a roof, along one or more sides of a house REVIEW PAGE 3

  8. TOP EIGHT VERBS Analyze – Take apart a concept or a process, explain it step by step Compare – Show likenesses when you compare two events Describe – Give an account of in words Develop – To expand or enlarge by adding detail and fullness Infer – To conclude from the evidence given Make – to form in the mind or compose Understand – To grasp the importance of, to grasp the meaning of

  9. ANALOGIES PAGE 4-5 CRANE : LIFT :: bulldozer : excavate NOVELIST : FICTION :: playwright : drama JAR : LID :: bottle : cork AUTHOR: ____________ :: WOODSMAN : AXE

  10. ANALOGIES PAGE 5 5. RUNNER : SWIFT :: BALLERINA : __________________ 6. CARPENTER : SAW :: SCULPTOR : _________________ 7. ____________ : HOSPITAL :: TELLER : BANK ACTOR : ____________ :: FARMER : FIELD ___________ : DOWNPOUR :: BREEZE : HURRICANE ___________ : BOW :: ANTERIOR : POSTERIOR

  11. “THE DINNER PARTY” REVIEW PAGE 6 • A colonial official and his wife • Who has the most self-control, men or women? The two people are • young woman and the Colonel. 3. The servant puts a bowl of milk on the veranda. Makes a bet with the guest to sit still The colonial official’s wife because the snake slithered across her foot.

  12. “Raymond’s Run” REVIEW PAGE 6 1. …Squeaky loves to run and at the end of the story she sees Raymond’s potential as a runner too. 2. …her brother Raymond 3. …Squeak’s identity is important to her and that is why she insists Mr. Pearson use her real name. 4. …Squeaky wants to win the May Day race and Gretchen has put out a tale that she will win the first place medal 5. Squeaky has developed respect for Gretchen.

  13. “Pandora’s Box” & “Loo Wit the Firekeeper” REVIEW PAGE 7 “Do not trust the gods. And beware especially of Zeus and anything he may send you.” Hera, the wife of Zeus, gave her the gift of curiosity. The myth explains how all that was evil, sad, and hurtful entered the world. Hera, the wife of Zeus 5. “Zeus ordered Hephaestus, the smith and artisan of the gods, to make a woman…”

  14. 6. Zeus, the lord of Olympus 7. Aphrodite 8. Epimetheus, the slow-witted brother of Prometheus 9. The Creator 10. The Creator changed the chiefs into Mount Adams and Mount Hood.

  15. “Forgive My Guilt” • REVIEW PAGE 8 His conscience will not allow him to forget the pitiful cries of the wounded birds even long after they have gone. Somebody wanted to practice hunting birds, so he shot the wings off of two birds. But he felt guilty when they didn’t die, and he had to hear their tormented cries, so he asks nature to forgive him. 3. Simile and Personification

  16. Point of View REVIEW PAGE 8 Point of view - the vantage point from which a story is told 2. Narrator – the voice that tells the story 3. First person – the narrator is a character in the story, uses the pronouns “I” and “me”, and shares his or her view of other characters. 4. Third person limited – the narrator is NOT a character in the story but is an outside observer. They focus on the thoughts and feelings of ONE character. 5. Third person omniscient – the narrator is NOT a character in the story but is an outside observer. They know the thoughts, feelings, and opinions of ALL characters in the story.

  17. Point of View 6. Nancy was tired, and she just wanted to sleep. Peggy was full of energy and she was ready to hit the jogging trail. It was weird how the twins were different that morning. Third-person omniscient 7. The sun was shining brightly. I was ready for the big sailing trip with my dad. We got the boat ready to launch. I was so excited I could sing for joy. First-person 8. The horrible little girl screamed at her mom. Her mom was so frustrated she did not know what to do. She felt guilty punishing her daughter, but she felt bad for letting her be wild in the store. Third-person limited

  18. Plot 1. Exposition – the author introduces the setting and the characters and also reveals the story’s conflict. 2. Rising Action – the part of the story that introduces the obstacles and builds suspense. 3. Climax – the turning point of the story. In this part of the story, the climax is intense. 4. Falling Action – the part of the story where the author reveals the result of the climax. It eases the tension and shows how the main conflict is resolved. 5. Resolution – the part of the story that reveals the final outcome and ties up loose ends.

  19. Mythology Review p9 1. Why were myths created? A link to religion or culture, to explain nature, to entertain, to teach about life and the mysteries of the universe. 2. Name 5 characteristics of mythology: They feature gods and goddesses, focus on humans with flaws, portray the deeds of heroes, reveal the results of good or bad behavior, and they represent life’s dark forces as monsters. Heroes and their deeds are often a part of mythology. Myths are handed down by word of mouth. 3. Tell how gods/goddesses are like humans. They are born into families and feel emotions, such as anger, jealousy, and joy. 4. Tell how gods/goddesses are NOT like humans. They have divine powers and they are immortal.

  20. 5. Identify these mythological characters: Pandora: Zeus had Hephaestus make Pandora to give the Epimetheus as a gift. He wanted to do this to punish Epimetheus for helping his brother Prometheus give fire to humans. Pandora released evil into the world of humans. Prometheus: With his brother’s help, Prometheus gave the gift of fire to humans. He was punished by Zeus by being chained to a rock and having an eagle tear at his liver each day. He warned his brother not to trust Zeus. Hera: Queen of the Olympians. She was married to Zeus. Aphrodite: Goddess of love, desire and beauty. Wife of Hephaestus.

  21. Hephaestus: Only god to be physically ugly. He is the god of fire and forge. Married to Aphrodite. He made Pandora for Zeus. Epimetheus: Titan. Accepted the gift of Pandora from Zeus. Also helped Prometheus bring fire to mankind. Hermes: Messenger to all the other gods. He wears winged sandals and a winged hat. He is the guide for the dead to go to the underworld. He delivered Pandora to Epimetheus. Zeus: King of all the gods. The thunderbolt is his weapon. He is married to Hera. Athena: Goddess of reason and wisdom, arts, and literature. Daughter of Zeus. She was Zeus’s favorite child.

  22. Poetry Review p10 1. What is a stanza? A division in poetry equivalent to a paragraph in prose. 2. What is rhyme scheme? A pattern of end rhyme noted by assigning a letter of the alphabet, beginning with a, to each line. Lines that rhyme are given the same letter. 3. What is end rhyme? The occurrence of similar or identical sounds at the end of two or more lines. 4. What is internal rhyme? Rhyme that occurs within a single line of poetry.

  23. Conflict Review p10 1. What is conflict? A struggle between two opposing forces. 2. What is internal conflict? This is the kind of conflict that takes place within the self or character. An example is when a character is struggling over a difficult decision. 3. What is external conflict? This is the kind of conflict that involves a struggle between a character and an outside force.

  24. 4. Name the 4 types of conflict and give a short example of each. Examples include: character vs. character – a character confronts his friend when he learns he has been betrayed. character vs. society – a character faces poor working conditions. character vs. nature – a character faces a blinding snow storm. character vs. self – a character must decide if he should turn in a friend breaking the law.

  25. “The Treasure of Lemon Brown” Review p10 He is failing math. 2. Greg wants to play basketball for the Scorpions. 3. To an abandoned tenement house. 4. He encounters Lemon Brown. Some thugs come and try to steal Lemon’s treasure from him. 5. A beat up harmonica and some old newspaper clippings. 6. He keeps it.

  26. “The Medicine Bag” Review p12 To visit Grandpa on the reservation. 2. He makes them believe is more like the Indians on TV. 3. He faints. 4. Foremost to pass the medicine bag to Martin. Secondly, he is lonely and would like to see how/where they live. 5. Symbolizes the family history, culture, and heritage to be passed to each generation. Literally it is a leather pouch containing a piece of iron shale, a pebble from the butte, and a leaf of sacred sage.

  27. The Hitchhiker Review p12 1. Describe Ronald Adams. …a 36 year old man, unmarried, tall, dark, with a black mustache. 2. What are the statements his mother says that shows foreshadowing? …Mother tells Adams not to pick up strangers. 3. What happens on the Brooklyn Bridge? …he is killed in an automobile accident. 4. Describe the scene at the train track. …The hitchhiker beckons Ronald to cross the tracks at the same time that a train is coming. 5. What does Adams find out when he calls his mother? …That he had been killed on the Brooklyn Bridge automobile accident – he is dead!

  28. Frederick Douglass Review Questions: Review p13 & 14 1. Frederick Douglas was asked to speak at what national celebration? The 4th of July Celebration 2. What was his internal conflict about speaking at this celebration? How could he speak about the joys of being free when ‘he’ or so many Americans (slaves) were not free? Douglass contrasts the tumultuous joy of the nation with the mournful cry of the millions. Who are these millions of people? Enslaved Black Americans Douglass feels that there is a disparity between the free people of the nation and the slaves. Because the slaves are still in bondage, he calls this celebration a _________. fraud

  29. A device that is posed, not to elicit a specific answer, but rather to encourage the listener to consider a message or viewpoint. rhetorical question 6. Aphorism An original thought, spoken or written in a laconic (concise) and memorable form. Example of an aphorism: “Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country?” - JFK or “You can fool all the people some of the time, and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time.” Abraham Lincoln

  30. 7. Parallelism Similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses. Examples of parallelism --- (all of these are from JFK’s inaugural speech) “… born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage …” “… we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe …” “… Now the trumpet summons us again—not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need; not as a call to battle, though embattled we are—but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle …”

  31. 8. Commonplace assertion A statement that many people assume to be true, but may or may not be true. Examples – from Frederick Douglas’s speech “There is not a man beneath the canopy of heaven that does not know that slavery is wrong for him.” - from our red literature book one bad apple can spoil the bunch