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SEMESTER FINALREVIEW PRE-AP ENGLISH 8 2013
“THE TELL-TALE HEART” PAGE 1 The policemen His manner 3. Death: *The old man did not want to die. *He was fearful. *His life was taken unrightfully so by the narrator. DYING: *The old man’s life was taken away from him unjustly. DEATH-MORTALITY
“THE TELL-TALE HEART” PAGE 1 4. DEFINE MOCKERY a. Insulting or contemptuous action or speech b. A subject of laughter, derision, or sport c. A counterfeit appearance d. An insincere, contemptible or impertinent imitation; makes a mockery of justice e. Something ridiculously or impudently unsuitable
“THE TELL-TALE HEART” PAGE 1 5. The narrator hears the ticking from beneath the floorboards. 6. Simile
Do you like the poem “Trees” that we read in class yesterday? The Star Tribune had a great article about high school football titled, “Gridiron Greats.” 3. Ned Smith wrote an article called “Upstairs in the End” for Newsweek. 4. We saw the play A Christmas Carol at the Guthrie Theater. 5. Sue’s poem, “Adventure at 30,000 Feet,”was published in the book High School Poets. 6. My favorite part of Saturday Night Live is the segment called “Weekend Update.” 7. My little sister’s favorite movie is Finding Nemo. 8. For my research paper, I used an article called “Turtle Heaven” published in the April issue of Minnesota Conservation Volunteer. 9. The song “Killing the Blues” on the CD Raising Sand by Alison Krauss and Robert Plant was used in a J. C. Penney ad. 10. Paw Prints is the name of the journalism class’s publication. REVIEW PAGE 2
SAT LESSONS Ambivalent-having contrary feelings or attitudes, uncertain as to the course of action Synonym – undecided Antonym – certain; firmly convinced Engender – to cause, to produce or create Synonym – Antonym – to squelch Taciturn – quiet; not verbose Synonym – reserved, reticent, silent, uncommunicative Antonym – loquacious; talkative Banal – common, ordinary, lacking freshness, hackneyed Synonym – insane, insipid, vapid Antonym – fresh, unique, extraordinary REVIEW PAGE 2-3
Esoteric – understood by a small group or a select few • Synonym – abstruse, mystical • Antonym – obvious, known, public • Venerate – to honor, to revere • Synonym – adore, worship • Antonym – denounce, condemn • Erudite - [er-yoo-dahyt] characterized by great knowledge; learned • or scholarly • Synonym – educated, knowledgeable • Antonym – common, ignorant • Didactic – intended for instruction; instructive • Synonym – academic, advisory, intended for instruction • Antonym – simple, untaught • Servile – relating to or involving slaves or appropriate for slaves or servants • Synonym – base, beggarly • Antonym – aggressive, dominant REVIEW PAGE 2-3
Assuage – to ease, to mitigate, to make less painful or • burdensome, to calm • Synonym – allay, alleviate, smooth • Antonym – aggressive, to intensify • Petulance – unreasonable touchiness, irritability • Synonym – ill-humor • Antonym – serenity • Virulent – extremely poisonous, hateful • Synonym – deadly, harmful • Antonym – harmless REVIEW PAGE 2-3
RHETORICAL APPEALS • What is logos? • *Logos (Greek for 'word') • *the appeal to reason; supported by facts • *refers to the internal consistency of the message--the clarity of the claim • *the logic of its reasons • *the effectiveness of its supporting evidence • The impact of logos on an audience is sometimes called the argument's logical appeal. REVIEW PAGE 3
RHETORICAL APPEALS What is pathos? The appeal to the audience’s emotions *Pathos (Greek for 'suffering' or 'experience') *Appeal to the audience's sympathies *Pathos causes an audience not just to respond emotionally but to identify with the writer's point of view *To feel what the writer feels. REVIEW PAGE 3
RHETORICAL APPLEALS PATHOS Perhaps the most common way of conveying a pathetic appeal is through narrative or story, which can turn the abstractions of logic into something palpable and present. The values, beliefs, and understandings of the writer are implicit in the story and conveyed imaginatively to the reader. Pathos thus refers to both the emotional and the imaginative impact of the message on an audience, the power with which the writer's message moves the audience to decision or action.
RHETORICAL APPEALS REVIEW PAGE 3 What is ethos? Appeal to ethics or character *Greek for 'character' *Refers to the trustworthiness or credibility of the writer or speaker. *Ethos is often conveyed through tone and style of the message and through the way the writer or speaker refers to differing views. *It can also be affected by the writer's reputation as it exists independently from the message--his or her expertise in the field, his or her previous record or integrity *The argument's 'ethical appeal' or the 'appeal from credibility.'
AP STRATEGIES REVIEW PAGE 5 WHAT IS TP-CASSS-TT USED FOR? ANALYZING POETRY • WHAT IS APPARTS USED FOR? • ANALYZING DOCUMENTS WHAT IS SMELLER USED FOR? ANALYZING SPEECHES
Dreams Hold fast to dreamsFor if dreams dieLife is a broken-winged birdThat cannot fly.Hold fast to dreamsFor when dreams goLife is a barren fieldFrozen with snow. Langston Hughes
Copy the poem on notebook paper. Get with a partner and answer these questions. What does the title imply to you? What figures of speech do you see? What words have a connotative meaning for you? Is there a rhyme scheme? What is the author’s tone of this poem? Do you see evidence of the author’s use of syntax? Paraphrase this piece of poetry. What would you say the theme of this poem might be? DREAMS BY LANGSTON HUGHES
AP STRATEGIES REVIEW PAGE 5 Using APPARTS and the speeches “Declaration of Sentiments” and “Ain’t I a Woman,” think about the following questions. 1. Consider the purpose of these speeches. 2. Where were they presented? 3. What was the significance of these speeches? 4. Who were the primary writer? 5. Who was the intended receiver?
AP STRATEGIES REVIEW PAGE 5 Using SMELLER and the speeches “The Gettysburg Address” and “School House Door” think about the following questions. What was the purpose of these speeches? Who was the intended receiver? What document did “The Gettysburg Address” allude to? Who was the sender of these speeches? What was the message of these speeches?
SOURCES REVIEW PAGE 6 Primary Sources: A document, speech, or other piece of evident written, created, or otherwise produced during the time under study. Primary sources offer an inside view of a particular event. Example: Diary of Anne Frank Secondary and Tertiary Sources: Secondary: encylopedia Tertiary: manual
POETRY REVIEW PAGE 6 END RHYME: The occurrence of similar or identical sounds at the end of two or more lines INTERNAL RHYME: Rhyme that occurs within a single line of poetry. RHYME SCHEME: A pattern of end rhyme noted by assigning a letter of the alphabet, beginning with a, to each line. Lines that rhyme are given the same letter. STANZA: A division in poetry equivalent to a paragraph in prose. REFRAIN: A sound, word, or phrase or line repeated regularly in a poem
PAGE 7 LITERARY ELEMENTS • Point of view • Irony • Mood • Setting • Characterization • Protagonist • Symbol • Allusion • Theme 10. Conflict 11. Metaphor 12. Hyperbole 13. Alliteration 14. Personification 15. Onomatopoeia
LITERARY ELEMENTS PAGE 8 FOR NUMBER 1-4 CHOOSE FROM THESE TERMS: Idiom Allusion Personification Oxymoron Irony simile FOR NUMBER 7-11 CHOOSE FROM THESE TERMS: Onomatopoeia Metaphor allusion Imagery Idiom Characterization Foreshadowing Simile
Review Answers for Literary Terms Review Page 8 Oxymoron Idiom Personification Simile Metaphor Idiom Characterization Imagery Onomatopoeia
Review Answers for Literary Terms Review Page 9 Diction Hyperbole Theme Metaphor
TOP EIGHT VERBS Analyze – Take apart a concept or a process, explain it step by step Compare – Show likenesses and differences when you compare two events Describe – Give an account of in words Develop – To expand or enlarge by adding detail and fullness Infer – To conclude from the evidence given Make – to form in the mind or compose Understand – To grasp the importance of, to grasp the meaning of REVIEW PAGES 9-10
ANALOGIES PAGE 10 CRANE : LIFT :: bulldozer : excavate NOVELIST : FICTION :: playwright : drama JAR : LID :: bottle : cork AUTHOR: ____________ :: WOODSMAN : AXE
ANALOGIES PAGE 11-12 5. RUNNER : SWIFT :: BALLERINA : __________________ 6. CARPENTER : SAW :: SCULPTOR : _________________ 7. ____________ : HOSPITAL :: TELLER : BANK ACTOR : ____________ :: FARMER : FIELD ___________ : DOWNPOUR :: BREEZE : HURRICANE ___________ : BOW :: ANTERIOR : POSTERIOR
Point of View Review page 13 • Point of View – the vantage point from which a story is told • Narrator – the voice that tells the story • First Person – the narrator is a character in the story, uses the • pronouns “I” and “me,” and shares his or her view of the other • characters. • Third person limited – the narrator is NOT a character in the story, but • is an outside observer. They know the thoughts, feelings, and opinions • of ONE of the characters in the story. • Third person omniscient – the narrator is NOT a character in the story, • but is an outside observer. They know the thoughts, feelings, and • opinions of ALL CHARACTERS in the story.
Point of View Review page 13 Third Person Omniscient 7. First Person 8. Third Person Limited
Plot Review page 8 Exposition – the author introduces the setting and the characters, also reveals the story’s conflict Rising Action – the part of the story that introduces the obstacles and builds suspense. Climax – the turning point of the story. In this part of the story, the action is intense.
Plot Review page 8 • Falling Action – the part of the story where the author • reveals the result of the climax, It eases the tension and • shows how the main conflict is resolved. • Resolution – the part of the story that reveals the • final outcome and ties up the loose ends.
CONFLICT Review page 14 Conflict: A struggle between two opposing forces. Internal Conflict: This takes place within the self or character. Example: A character struggle with a hard decision External Conflict: This conflict involves a struggle between a character and an outside force.
CONFLICT Review page 14 The Four Types of Conflict: Character vs. Character – ex. A character confronts his friend when he learns he has been betrayed. Character vs. Society – ex. a character faces poor working conditions. Character vs. Nature – ex. a character faces a blinding snow storm Character vs. Self – a character must decide if he should turn in a friend breaking the law.