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Flower identification. According or basing to principal parts (complete & incomplete flower) 2. According to the functional point of view (perfect & imperfect flower)

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flower identification

Flower identification

According or basing to principal parts (complete & incomplete flower)

2. According to the functional point of view (perfect & imperfect flower)

A plant is with imperfect flowers is dioecious, if staminate and pistillate flowers are borne on different individual flower. Monoecious if staminate and pistillate flowers are borne on the same individual flower.

3. Based on the fusion of flower parts (connate, adnate & distinct flower)


The perianth

A flower that lack petals is called apetalous.A calyx of connate sepals is synsepalous, while the fused portion of a synsepalous calyx is a calyx tube and the separate tips are calyx lobes.If the petals are connate into a ring or tube and fall together as a unit, the corolla may be described as gamepetalous.




shapes of sympetalous corollas
Shapes of sympetalous corollas
  • Tubular
  • Funnel form
  • Campanulate
  • Urceolate
  • Salverform
  • Rotate
common structure in the androecium
Common structure in the androecium
  • Monadelphous stamens (stamens connate by filaments)
  • Epipetalous (stamens adnate to corolla)
  • Alternate stamens (stamens between corolla lobes or elements)
  • Opposite stamens (stamens infront of corolla lobes or elements)



Common structure in the androecium cont………If the filaments of all the stamen are connate into a ring, the stamens are monodelphous.In members of several other families stamens are connate in bunches are called polyadelphous, often with several to many stamens each.Stamens with filaments adnate to the petals are epipetalous.Stamens may be fewer than, equal to, twice as many as or more than twice as many as the petals, often considered to be numerous or many. When the stamens are as many as or fewer than the petal they are alternate with the petals and it attached between the petals or opposite if they are directly infront of the petals.

the gynoecium
The Gynoecium
  • Some angiosperms have only a single carpel per flower, known as monocarpousgynoecium.
  • Others have two or more carpels, if the carpels are distinct from each other the gynoecium is apocarpous.
  • If the carpels are connate into a single unit, the gynoecium is syncarpous.
  • Placentations type is based on the nature of the ovule attachment within the ovary and on whether the ovary is simple or compound.
  • If the ovary is simple, the attachment is usually marginal with ovules attached in two vertical rows that corresponds to the fused carpel margins.
  • An ovary with parietalplacentation typically has no septa(partions) and the ovules are borne on the inner wall of the ovary.
  • Apical and basalplacentation occur in both simple and compound ovaries the one or few ovules are restricted to the top or bottom of the locule(chambers) respectively.
  • Therefore forms of placentation includes, marginal placentation, axileplacentation, free central placentation, basal placentation, parietal placentation and apicalplacentation.
ovary position
Ovary Position

Superior Ovaries

Inferior Ovaries

  • Hypogyuous- below the ovary
  • Perigyuous- around the ovary
  • Epigyuous-on top of the ovary

When bases of the perianth parts and stamens are adnate to the ovary wall.

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Since 2007

@ 2014