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Africa Economy and Government

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  1. Africa Economy and Government Ch. 22-24

  2. SSWG4 • The student will describe the interaction of physical and human systems that have shaped contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa. • c. Describe the pattern of population distribution in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa in relation to urbanization and modernization. • f. Analyze strengths and weaknesses in the development of Sub-Saharan Africa; include factors such as linguistic, tribal, and religious diversity; literacy levels; and the colonial legacy. • g. Describe the ethnic and religious groups in Sub-Saharan Africa; include major customs and traditions. • h. Analyze the impact of drought and desertification on Sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. Economy of Continent Divided by the 4 regions within Africa • North • West and Central • East • South

  4. North Africa Economy • Mostly developing countries • 1. Oil/natural gas are most important • Libya – largest producer/reserves • 2. Agriculture • Fellahin – Egypt’s peasant farmers (40%) • found in Egypt/Nile Delta • Grapes, olives, dates, rice, cotton • 3. Tourism • Imp to Egypt (pyramids), Tunisia & Morocco

  5. Fellahin

  6. Problems for North Africa • 1. Political Unrest • N. African people want to set up Islamic law • Can lead to civil wars • 2. Poverty and Unemployment • Slums • 30% in some countries • 3. Skilled workers migrate to Europe and Middle East

  7. West and Central Africa Economy Dual Economies • Most countries have dual economies • Goods produced for export to wealthy countries while others are produced for local people • Ex: cocoa produced for export, but most practice subsistence farming and make clothing Primary vs. Secondary • Exporting raw materials developed elsewhere • Cote D’Ivoire-cocoa beans, chocolate manufactured elsewhere • Guinea-bauxite, aluminum produced elsewhere

  8. Problems for West and Central Africa • Economic Development • Pollution • Growth • Health care • Political problems • environment • Housing shortages • Shanty towns v. prosperous city areas

  9. East Africa Economy • All are developing • Population growth, starvation, famine & violence • Farming/Herding are main activities • Women – primary farmers • Men – care for livestock

  10. Tourism • Animals • Cool highlands • Snowcapped mountains • Clean beaches • Cultural events

  11. East Africa Problems • 1. Economic contradictions • Superhighways, skyscrapers v. run down buildings and slums

  12. East Africa Problems • 2. Large population growth • 3. Ethnic conflicts • Rwanda – Hutu vs. Tutsi • Somalia – clans fight over grazing rights

  13. South Africa Economy • Most developed in ALL of Africa • Better than all of southern Africa’s economies combined • Agriculture • Manufacturing • Largest mineral exporter (diamonds and gold) • Botswana – world’s largest diamond producer

  14. South African Problems • 1. Poverty • 2. Rapid Growth of Cities • People move to urban to escape rural poverty • 3. Environmental • Smog, droughts, and floods • 4. HIV

  15. African Governments • Despite conflicts, war throughout late 1900s, many African countries still have dictatorships • Many Africans saw weakness as opportunity to create democratic governments, demanded elections • By 2005, more than 30 African countries had abandoned one-party systems, held elections

  16. Civil wars • Egypt • 2011 civil war • Millions of protestors called for overthrow of President • Included Islamic, liberal, anti-capitalist, nationalist, and feminist aspects • 2013 – suspended constitution • Currently no president – has a temporary government • Libya • Temporary Parliamentary republic • 1969, Colonel Muammar Gaddafi came to power • Repressed and abused human rights • 2011 civil war – want new power • Gaddafi killed Oct. 2011

  17. South Africa • Constitutional Democracy • Nelson Mandela – 1st Black President in 1994 • Currently Jacob Zuma