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Module 12: Track Inspection & Maintenance. Objectives. Track Inspection Importance of Track Inspection Methods and Types of Inspection Application of the Track Safety Standards Specialized Inspection Vehicles Maintenance Practices Preventative Maintenance Typical Activities

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Module 12: Track Inspection & Maintenance


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objectives
Objectives

Track Inspection

  • Importance of Track Inspection
  • Methods and Types of Inspection
  • Application of the Track Safety Standards
  • Specialized Inspection Vehicles

Maintenance Practices

  • Preventative Maintenance
  • Typical Activities
  • Production Activities
  • Integration of Maintenance in Design
importance of track inspections
Importance of Track Inspections
  • FRA / Transport Canada Required
  • First and Last “Line of Defense” against track related derailments
  • Initial phase of planning for maintenance activities and future track upgrade programs
  • Public and employee safety
inspection methods
Inspection Methods
  • Hi-Rail Inspection
  • Walking Inspection
  • Train Inspection
inspection by hi rail
Inspection By Hi-rail
  • Hi-Rail
    • The hi-rail is a versatile vehicle that allows the inspector to traverse the track in one direction and return by road
    • Provides flexibility/versatility
    • Most common method utilized for scheduled and special inspections
    • Most often one, and sometimes two Inspectors observing the track
    • Scheduled per regulatory requirement and/or company policy
    • Visual detection of defects
    • “Feel” and sound of the track that may indicate the presence of a substandard condition
walking inspections
Walking Inspections
  • Allows for a more detailed look at the track.
  • Quantify defects with physical measurements
  • Planned at various times of year, or;
  • Company policy may dictate an annual walking inspection.
  • Regulatory requirement for inspecting turnouts, track crossings and lift rail assemblies or other transition devices on moveable bridges to be performed “on foot”
train inspection
Train Inspection
  • Provides a “feel” of the track under loaded conditions
  • Frequency depends on amount and type of train traffic, anywhere from twice annually to monthly
  • No regulatory requirement – Company Policy
types of track inspection
Types of Track Inspection
  • Normal or Scheduled (Routine)
    • Regulatory Compliance
    • Company Standard
  • Special Inspection
    • Specific Planned (i.e. Culverts, Rail Wear etc)
    • Emergency (Weather related, Incidents/Accidents)
  • Specialized Inspection Vehicles
    • Rail Flaw Detection Vehicles
    • Track Geometry Vehicle
slide9

Scheduled Inspections

  • Regulated, Mandatory inspection of Main track and sidings (Hi-rail or Walking)
  • Monthly Inspection of “Other than Main” track, Turnouts & Special Track Work (Walking)
  • FRA/Transport Canada outlines minimum inspection frequencies
  • Report of tracks inspected, conditions found and actions taken are completed during the inspection.
track safety standards
Track Safety Standards

46 CFR 213 SUBPARTS A-F

  • GENERAL
  • ROADBED
  • TRACK GEOMETRY
  • TRACK STRUCTURE
  • TRACK APPLIANCES & DEVICES
  • INSPECTIONS
defects
Defects
  • Defect Classification
    • Class of Track (Speed) Specific
      • Quantitative
    • Non-Class of Track Specific
      • Quantitative
      • Qualitative
  • Defect Identification
    • Visual
    • Hidden

Repair

Restrict

Remove

general
General

Max. Speed

Max. Speed

Track

Freight

Passenger

Excepted

10

N/A

Class 1

10

15

Class 2

25

30

Class 3

40

60

Class 4

60

80

Class 5

80

90

CLASS OF TRACK 1-5

  • 213.1 Scope of Part
  • 213.3 Application
  • 213.4 Excepted Track
  • 213.5 Responsibility for Compliance
  • 213.9 Class of Track
  • 213.11 Restoration or Renewal Under Traffic
  • 213.7 Designation of Qualified Persons to Supervise Renewal & Inspect Track
  • 213.13 Measuring Track Not Under Load
  • 213.15 Penalties
  • 213.17 Waivers
roadbed
Roadbed
  • 213.33 Drainage
  • 213.37 Vegetation

REPAIR

RESTRICT

REMOVE

track geometry
Track Geometry
  • 213.53 Gage
  • 213.55 Alignment
  • 213.57 Curves -Elevation & Speed Limitations
  • 213.59 Elevation of Curved Track
  • 213.63 Surface
slide15
Gage

The gage must

But not more

Class of Track

be at least -

than -

¢

²

Excepted Track

n/a

4

10-1/4

¢

²

¢

²

Class 1 Track

4

8

4

10

¢

²

¢

²

Class 2 and 3 Track

4

8

4

9-3/4

¢

²

¢

²

Class 4 and 5 Track

4

8

4

9-1/2

surface
Surface
  • Run-off
  • Profile
  • Deviation In Crosslevel - Tangent
  • Reverse Elevation - Curves
  • Difference in Crosslevel
  • Harmonics
track structure
Track Structure
  • 213.103 Ballast
  • 213.109 Crossties
  • 213.110 Gage Restraint
  • 213.113 Defective Rails
  • 213.115 Rail End Mismatch
  • 213.119 CWR
  • 213.121 Rail Joints
  • 213.122 Torch Cut Rail
  • 213.123 Tie Plates
  • 213.127 Rail Fastenings
  • 213.133 Turnouts & Track Crossings
  • 213.135 Switches
  • 213.137 Frogs
  • 213.139 Spring Rail Frogs
  • 213.141 Self-Guarded Frogs
  • 213.143 Frog Guard Rails & Guard Face - Gage
crossties
Crossties

Turnouts and

Tangent track and

curved track over 2

degrees

curves

2 degrees

£

Class 1 Track

5

6

Class 2 Track

8

9

Class 3 Track

8

10

Class 4 and 5 Track

12

14

NUMBER OF NON-DEFECTIVE TIES REQUIRED

PER 39’ RAIL LENGTH

  • Definition of Defective Tie
  • Number Non-Defective Ties Per 39’ Rail Length
  • Joint Tie Conditions Fulfilled
  • Non-Defective Ties Effectively Distributed
rail defects
Rail Defects
  • Remedial Action Non-Class Specific
  • Defects % Cross-Sectional Area – Head
    • Transverse & Compound Fissures
    • Detail & Engine Burn Fractures, Defective Weld
  • Defects Longitudinal
    • Horizontal Slit Head, Vertical Split Head , Head & Web
    • Split Web & Piped Rail
  • Bolt Hole Crack & Broken Base
  • Ordinary Break, Damaged & Flattened Rail
transverse compound fissures
Transverse & Compound Fissures

Transverse Fissure

Compound Fissure

detail engine burn fractures defective weld defects
Detail & Engine Burn Fractures, Defective Weld Defects

Detail

Fractures

Engine Burn Fracture

Defective Weld

track appliances track related devices
Track Appliances & Track Related Devices

213.205 Derails

  • Clearly Visible
  • Free of Lost Motion
  • Maintained to Function as Intended
  • Properly Installed for Designated Rail Section
slide29

Special Inspection (Specific)

  • Planned at specific times for specific items:
    • Tie defect Counts
    • Rail Wear Measurements
    • Rail Grinding Requirements
    • Culvert Inspections
    • Gage Measurements
    • Crossing Audits
    • Known problem areas
    • Extreme Heat or Cold (not always planned, but can often be anticipated)
slide30

Emergency Inspections

  • Unplanned
  • Weather
  • Natural Disasters
  • Incident/Accident
slide31

Inspection Records

  • Filled out while conducting the inspection
  • List all deviations and the corrective action
  • Kept on file for 1 year
  • Type of inspection indicated on report
  • Signed & dated
slide32

Special Vehicle Inspections

  • Rail Flaw Detector Vehicle (RFD)
    • Scheduled
    • Regulatory required frequency for Class 3-5 track
    • More frequent testing dictated by company policy
    • Internal search for rail defects using NDT “Ultra-sonic testing equipment
    • Specialized Equipment & Training required
track maintenance
Track Maintenance
  • Normal Maintenance
    • Performed by small sections
    • Day to day maintenance
    • Emergency Repairs
  • Program Maintenance
    • Capital projects
program maintenance
Program Maintenance
  • Rail Grinding
  • In-Track Rail Welding
  • Road Crossings
  • Production & Capital Maintenance
    • Rail Gangs
    • Tie Gangs
    • Surfacing
    • Undercutting
rail grinding
Rail Grinding
  • Purpose: Remove Surface Imperfections in the Rail & Optimize Rail/Wheel Contact Area
  • Out-of-Face & Switch Multiple Stone Grinders
  • Grinds Main Track Based on Railroad Policy
  • Grinds 6 to 15 MPH
rail gangs
Rail Gangs

Speed Swing

  • Largest crews
  • 30 to 60 employees
  • Relay or Transpose CWR
  • Gang Consist
    • Unload CWR
    • Front End of Gang
    • Middle of Gang
    • Rear of the Gang

Rail Train

rail gang make up
Rail Gang Make-up

Tie Adzer

Galion Crane Laying Rail

Spiker

Rail Heater

production tie renewal
Production Tie Renewal
  • Production crew 12 to 30 employees
  • 6 to 20 machines
  • 400 to 2500+ ties per day
tie gang make up
Tie Gang Make-up

Anchor Spreader

Tie Handler

Spiker

Tie Inserter/Remover

production surfacing
Production Surfacing
  • Highly mechanized crews
  • 4 to 20 employees
  • Typical Equipment Includes:
    • Production Tamper
    • Jr. Tamper
    • Regulator
    • Stabilizer

CAT-09 Tamper

MK IV Operator

MK IV Tamper

surfacing gang consist
Surfacing Gang Consist

MK IV Tamper

Ballast Regulator

Dynamic Track Stabilizer

Ballast Unloading

slide54

Remember

What you Build

Must be Maintained