tutoring subordinating and coordinating clauses l.
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Tutoring Subordinating and Coordinating Clauses. Drop the Jargon- Keep it Simple. First, Get Back to Basics (Scaffold). Explain what a sentence is – A sentence contains a subject, verb, and complete idea Next explain what a clause is –

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first get back to basics scaffold
First, Get Back to Basics (Scaffold)
  • Explain what a sentence is –
    • A sentence contains a subject, verb, and complete idea
  • Next explain what a clause is –
    • A clause contains a subject and verb, but may not express a complete idea
  • Finally, Introduce the concept of Independent and Dependent clauses
    • Independent = a complete sentence
    • Dependent = Lacks a complete idea
identifying dependent subordinate clauses
Identifying Dependent (Subordinate) Clauses
  • Hand student the worksheet containing list of dependent words. Avoid using jargon like subordinating conjunctions. Yuck!
  • Read over some of the words with the student and ask what they mean?
  • Remember, both subordinating and coordinating set up the relationship between the two parts of the sentence.
  • Tutor: What does although mean?
  • Student: Hmm. Uh. Except?
  • Tutor: Although John likes to travel, he decided to stay home for Christmas. Would except replace although in this sentence?
  • Student: Even though
  • Tutor: Very good.
subordinate clauses depend on the independent clause for meaning
Subordinate Clauses Depend on the Independent Clause for Meaning
  • Ask the student why we call it a dependent or subordinate clause.

Tutor: Why?

Student: I don’t know.

Tutor: What does the word dependent mean to you?

Student: To rely on somebody else. Like some co- dependent relative you can’t get rid of.

Tutor: Exactly. The dependent clause is the same way. It can’t stand alone. It relies on the dependent clause for its meaning.

Student: Oh.

model some examples
Model Some Examples
  • First demonstrate examples where the dependent clause comes first, highlighting the dependent word and comma placement as well as the relationship.
    • Because Kim hates cooking, she orders out every night.
    • Whenever she gets sick, Maria swallows handfuls of cold pills.
    • Since our dog is so frisky, we have to take her to the park every night.
now model the alternative
Now Model the Alternative
  • Write the same sentences the alternative way.
  • Ask what makes them different and why…3
    • Kim orders out everyday because she hates cooking.
    • Maria swallows handfuls of pills whenever she gets sick.
  • Point out if the IC comes first, there is no need for a comma.
next do the same for coordinating conjunctions
Next Do the Same for Coordinating Conjunctions
  • Ask the student how they can join two Independent clauses.
    • Tutor: How?
    • Student: A semi-colon?
    • Tutor: Damn. Well, yes. But how else?
    • Student: Uh…Got me.
introduce student to a list of coordinating conjunctions
Introduce Student to a List of Coordinating Conjunctions.
  • Show the list
  • Talk about the relationships
    • And = addition
    • So = Cause and effect
    • But = Opposite
  • Emphasis that unlike subordinate clause, independent clauses joined together have equal value.
model how to join
Model How To Join
  • I love eating chicken, so I bought two dozen frozen hens at the supermarket.
  • Mary sings the Blues, but her boyfriend prefers Opera.
  • We can go to Disney World, or we can go to Las Vegas.
another tool break it down into mathematical formulas
Another Tool: Break It Down into Mathematical Formulas.
  • IC + comma + coordinating conjunction + IC
  • DC + comma + IC
  • IC + DC
keep it simple
Keep it Simple
  • Remember to:
    • Question the student
    • Avoid jargon
    • Model examples
    • Use simple formulas to help students understand