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Fluency. Nikki Coulthurst , Sara Lindbom , Caroline Werner. Fluency .

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Nikki Coulthurst, Sara Lindbom, Caroline Werner


DEFINITION: Fluency is often defined as the rate (words per minute) and accuracy (number of words correctly identified) with which students perform reading tasks, accompanied by appropriate expression (prosody). Fluency aids in both reading and writing.

Prosody:the rhythms and tones of spoken language. Where text is being read silently or aloud, much of its meaning comes from the way it sounds. Students who read with expression are able to segment text into meaningful units, marking phrase and sentence boundaries with pauses, vowel lengthening and changes in pitch and emphasis.

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Fluency-I can read accurately, with expression and understand what I read


  • Voracious Reading

  • Reread Text

  • Read Appropriate Level Texts that are a “Good Fit”

  • Practice Common Sight Words and High Frequency Words

  • Adjust and apply different reading rate to match text

  • Use punctuation to enhance phrasing and prosody (end marks, commas, etc.)

Fluency rubric http www youtube com watch v w6o6jw7dzm4 feature related
Fluency Rubric http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w6o6jw7dzm4&feature=related

     Very little fluency

    All word-by-word reading with some long pauses between words

     Almost no recognition of syntax or phrasing (expressive interpretation)

     Very little evidence of awareness of punctuation

     Perhaps a couple of two-word phrases, but generally disfluent

     Some word groupings awkward


    Mostly word-by-word reading, but some two-word phrasing and even a couple of three or four-word phrases (expressive interpretation)

     Evidence of syntactic awareness of syntax and punctuation, although not consistently so

     Rereading for problem solving may be present


     A mixture of word-by-word reading and fluent, phrased reading (expressive interpretation)

     Evidence of attention to punctuation and syntax

     Rereading for problem solving may be present


     Reads primarily in larger, meaningful phrases

     Fluent, phrased reading with a few word-by-word slow downs for problem solving

     Expressive interpretation is evident at places throughout the reading

     Attention to punctuation and syntax

     Rereading for problem solving may be present, but is generally fluent

Strategies for developing fluency
Strategies for Developing Fluency

  • 1. Model Fluent Reading

  • 2. Do Repeated Readings in Class (Echo Reading)

  • 3. Promote Phrased Reading in Class

  • 4. Daily Writing

  • 5. Reader’s Theatre

Daily writing
Daily Writing

  • Writing helps children become better decoders and spellers. It helps them explore words and sounds on their own terms without necessarily focusing on correct spelling.

  • Writing promotes word fluency.

Echo reading
Echo Reading

  • Echo reading is done one sentence at a time, with short easy texts, usually with only one sentence on a page (early readers) or when reading plays.

  • Echo reading helps teach the children how to use different voices and expression to help convey meaning of the text.

ChickaChicka Boom Boom

By Bill Martin Jr.

Readers theatre
Readers’ Theatre

  • Characters:

  • Narrator

  • Child 1

  • Child 2

  • Child 3

  • Child 4

  • Max