Reading First – WhittierGrade K Team Fluency January 23, 2007
What are the Objectives? • Review Dimensions of Reading • Explore Fluency Research • Explore Shared Reading as a method of increasing fluency • Plan Shared Reading experiences
Dimensions of Reading • Phonemic awareness • Phonics • Vocabulary • Fluency • Text comprehension
Kindergarten Standards Standard 1 – Reading 0.1.1 The student uses skills in alphabetics to construct meaning from text. 0.1.1.1 - identifies sounds of both upper and lower case letters of the alphabet (Letter-sound Relationships) 0.1.1.2 - identifies names of both upper and lower case letters of the alphabet 0.1.1.3 - distinguishes letters from words by recognizing that words are separated by spaces 0.1.1.4 - demonstrates phonemic awareness skills by hearing and orally manipulating sounds (e.g., *phoneme isolation, *identification, *categorization, blending, segmentation, deletion, addition, substitution). (Phonemic Awareness) 0.1.1.5 - identifies and makes oral rhymes and begins to hear onsets and rimes (e.g., alliteration, intonation). (Phonological Awareness) 0.1.1.6 - demonstrates an understanding of graphemes and phonemes (i.e., sound-symbol relationships) in written and spoken language. (Phonics)
Grade 1 Standards Standard 1 - Reading 1.1.2 The student reads fluently. 184.108.40.206 uses a variety of word-recognition strategies to read fluently 1.1.3 The student expands vocabulary. 220.127.116.11 demonstrates automatic recognition of sight words 18.104.22.168 determines the meaning of unknown words or phrases using picture clues and context clues from sentences 22.214.171.124 identifies synonyms and antonyms to determine the meaning of words 126.96.36.199 determines meaning of words through knowledge of word structure (e.g., compound nouns, contractions, inflectional endings)
What does it look like in kindergarten? • Automatic recognition of upper and lowercase letters • Automatic recognition of basic sight words • Knowledge of print concepts • Practice using a variety of word-recognition strategies to read fluently with support from a teacher (Shared Reading)
Gradual Release of Responsibility Independent Reading Independent Writing Read Aloud Shared Writing Shared Reading Interactive Writing Guided Reading Guided Writing (Writers Workshop)
Why is fluency important? Because it provides a bridge between… Word Recognition comprehension
“Fluency, it seems, serves as a bridge between word recognition and comprehension. Because fluent readers are able to identify words accurately and automatically, they can focus most of their attention on comprehension. They can make connections among the ideas in the text and between the text and their background knowledge.
In other words, fluent readers can recognize words and comprehend at the same time. Less fluent readers, however, must focus much of their attention on word recognition…The result is that non-fluent readers have little attention to devote to comprehension” (Osborn, Lehr, and Hiebert, 2003)
“Reading fluency refers to efficient, effective word recognition skills that permit a reader to construct the meaning of a text. Fluency is manifested in accurate, rapid, expressive oral reading and is applied during, and makes possible, silent reading comprehension.” (Pikulski & Chard, 2005)
Why is early intervention so important? Because the automaticity with which skillful readers recognize words is the key to the whole system.
“The reader’s attention can be focused on the meaning and message of a text only to the extent that it’s free from fussing with the words and letters.” -Marilyn Adams
Fluency Continuum Surface level: Speed Deep level: Relation to Comprehension
Ehri’s Phases of Word Reading ConsolidatedAlphabetic Fully-Alphabetic Partial-Alphabetic Pre-Alphabetic
Prealphabetic Phase When a child recognizes the word “monkey” by looking at the ‘tail’ on the ‘y’. When a child says “that says stop!” when they see a red octagonal traffic sign, but cannot read the word ‘stop’ in isolation.
Partial Alphabetic Phase Children begin to understand that there is a relationship between letters and sounds, although they tend to rely on beginning and ending sounds so they continue to make errors in reading words.
Fully Alphabetic Phase able to sound out words successfully know the sound-symbol connections move from guessing a word from the first or last letter in the partial alphabetic phase, to complete word decoding sound by sound more words becomes automatically recognized as a result of frequent “sightings”.
Consolidated Phase Instant recognition of words Instant recognition of word spelling patterns – increases sight word vocabulary Well-prepared for fluent reading Caveat: both sight word bank and vocabulary knowledge must be developed
Modeling fluent reading (Rasinski, 2003; Stahl, 2004); • Quality of instruction: Students need to know what constitutes fluent reading and effective strategies to regulate and improve fluency. • Reading Practice: daily reading practice, including wide reading. (NRP, 2000)
Using instructional level texts with modeling, monitoring, feedback and support (Kuhn, 2005; Kuhn & Stahl, 2002) • Oral and silent reading: Guided oral repeated reading, oral reading with feedback. Silent reading must include monitoring to be effective (Pikulski & Chard, 2005; Stahl, 2004). • Monitoring Progress: Monitor through ongoing classroom assessment (Hiebert, 2003; NRP, 2000).
Recommendations for Increasing Fluency In ways that impact comprehension
1. Incorporate repeated reading formats that involve correction and feedback 2. Careful use of targeted practice for individual, frequently occurring words. 3. Modeling and encouragement of prosodic reading Current evidence suggests that prosody is important as an “index” of comprehension.
4. Wide independent reading to increase exposure to broad range of words and experience with multiple text structures. 5. Rich instruction in vocabulary and comprehension strategies so that they grow at the same rate as reading fluency. -Torgeson, Read Naturally (1998)
Shared Reading The driving force underlying a balanced literacy program and contributes to all aspects of it. -Brenda Parkes, Read It Again! (2000)
What makes it effective in increasing fluency? • It is a collaborative learning experience in which students read with the teacher as she navigates them through the text. • -Chen, Flores (2007)
For readers in the emergent and early stages of reading, the power of shared reading lies in the process of reading the text together. • The experience of integrating the four cueing systems in the act of reading serves as a model for what students can do with their independent texts.
Students become engaged in the reading of the text as well as in the thinking work of shared reading. • Student engagement during the reading of the text is key to their ability to word solve while reading and to comprehend the text • Within a shared reading experience all sources of information (semantics, syntax, graphophonics, and pragmatics) are explicitly modeled and practiced in an integrated fashion.
Allow or invite students to join in the reading when there are repetitive sentence structures or familiar words; this will help students practice automaticity when reading and speaking. • Stop to allow students to make personal connections with the text and share their thinking with a partner
Pause where the text supports rhyme and phonemic awareness • Highlight a repetitive phonics pattern or point out sight words for the word wall • Reread text multiple times to provide opportunities for students to widen and deepen their experiences with new vocabulary and syntax.
While initial readings allow children to make predictions, repeated readings familiarize them with the text and lead them to make self corrections-Holdaway (1979)
Repeated Reading Methods Emergent Storybook Reading Shared Reading Choral Reading Echo Reading Tape-Assisted Reading
Choral Reading Copies of instructional level passages. Give students copies of texts. Model the task by reading the first part of the text out loud. Set the pace and read with proper pacing, phrasing and expression. Read the same part of the text again and have students read along with you. Vaughn, Linan-Thompson, 2004. Research-based methods of reading instruction, grades K-3. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Echo Reading Give students copies of instructional-level texts. Explain that you will read some of the text, and students will then ‘echo read’ the same text, modeling your rate and expression Read 2-4 sentences. Then, pause for them to echo read. Then read 2-4 more sentences. You can tape the 2-4 sentence sections, or have a student serve as the model reader. National Institute for Literacy, 2001
Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction • Text is first read by the teacher and students follow along. • Discussion is held to direct attention to comprehension. • Over the next 2-3 days, students echo-, choral-, and partner-read the text and take it home to practice. • The readings are followed by extension activities developed by the teacher. (Stahl, Bradley, Smith, Kuhn, & Schwanenflugel, et al. (2003, April)
Reinforces vocabulary and oral language skills Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life. New York: Guilford.Bear, D.R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., & Johnston, F. (1996). Words their way. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Vocabulary Word knowledge is necessary for understanding (to gain meaning) …which develops vocabulary/ word knowledge Connects PA to phonics… Uses words within their oral/aural vocabularies, to develop phonemic awareness • Begins with children’s oral language simple to complex
Develops orthographic/phonological foundations (phonemic awareness, letter knowledge, phonics).
Phonological Awareness can be viewed along a continuum • Deletion • Addition • Substitution • Blending • Segmentation • Isolation • Identity • Categorization Phonemes Rhyming/alliteration Onset-rime Syllable Words in a sentence simple to complex
Phonics Continuum Multisyllabic Words Inflectional, Derivational Endings Complex Vowels Blends & Digraphs CVC Words simple to complex
Ehri’s Phases of Word Reading Consolidated Alphabetic Fully Alphabetic Partial Alphabetic Pre-Alphabetic simple to complex
Alphabetic Principle Teach phonological awareness and sound-symbol connections Onset - rime Blending and segmentation skills Word patterns
Speed Drills Students can begin doing speed drills as soon as they are reading a couple of words. You can make a speed drill with just 3-4 words (e.g., the, at, am) if a student is struggling with blending and can’t really read yet. For other students, consider drills with word families (such as the –am, -at, -ame, -ate lists. Or change the ending consonant in a speed drill (e.g., man, mat, map, mad). Rate is usually 50-120 words per minute. (Fischer, Concept Phonics. Oxton House)
Three Reading Cueing Systems Structure (Syntactic Cueing System) Does it sound right? Meaning (Semantic Cueing System) Does it make sense? • Grammatical Patterns & Language Structures • Knowledge of English • Natural Language • Story Sense (Genre) • Prior Knowledge • Text • Illustrations • Decoding by Analogy • Sound/Symbol Relationships • Print Conventions • Directionality • Words/Spaces • Letters • Beginnings/Endings • Punctuation Visual (Graphophonic Cueing System) Does it look right?