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Lorie Hoeft- Charles City CSDSherri Imoehl- North Fayette CSDHeidi Meyer- MFL Mar Mac CSDDr. Penny Beed- University of Northern Iowa. Objectives. 1. Define fluency
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1. Fluency Elementary Literacy and Reading Recovery Conference ~ April 23, 2010
3. Objectives 1. Define fluency
2. Share current research on fluency
3. Demonstrate activities to increase
fluency for struggling readers BeedBeed
4. Five essential components K-3 1) Phonemic awareness2) Phonics 3) Fluency 4) Vocabulary5) Comprehension ~National Reading Panel Report, 2000 LorieLorie
5. Grades K-12 Essential Skill and Concept Read with fluency silently and aloud to support comprehension.
~Iowa Core Curriculum - Literacy SherriSherri
6. Quickwrite Take one minute to write down your definition of fluency.
7. FLUENCY is . . . . . . .. the ability to read the words in a text with sufficient accuracy, automaticity, and prosody to lead to good comprehension.
~Rasinski, 2006 HeidiHeidi
8. Skills Necessary for Automaticity Oral language skills
Familiarity with letter forms
Efficient decoding skills
~Pikulski & Chard, 2005
9. Skills Necessary for Prosody Expression
10. Problems with Prosody Poor prosody can lead readers "to confusion through inappropriate or meaningless groupings of words or through inappropriate applications of expression" (Hudson, Lane, & Pullen, 2005, p. 703). LorieLorie
11. Aspects of Fluency Clip #1
“Fluent readers can recognize words both automatically and accurately and are able to read texts with expression or prosody. ” (Kuhn, 2005).
12. Aspects of Fluency Clip #2
"Speed reading is not fluency. If a child reads quickly, but doesn't understand, that isn't fluent." ~Young & Rasinski, 2009
13. Aspects of Fluency Clip #3
"Fluent oral reading should simply sound like natural speech" (Young & Rasinski, 2009).
14. Characteristics of students struggling with fluency 1) Too many decoding errors
2) Effort exhausts cognitive resources which should be devoted to comprehension
3) Unable to put accurate words together in a way that adds appropriate and meaningful expression
15. Quote Any of these result in poor comprehension, lack of enthusiasm for reading, and a personal sense of failure.
~Rasinski, 2006 Sherri--So what can we do to help those students who are struggling with fluency?Sherri--So what can we do to help those students who are struggling with fluency?
16. Caution! "In many fluency programs students engage in rote and somewhat mindless oral repetitions of texts for the primary purpose of increasing reading speed. As a result students may gain a perception of reading as being something that is done fast and is void of enjoyment and interest."
~Rasinski, Rupley, and Nichols, 2008
17. Take a minute and think… How do you currently teach fluency in your classroom?
Lorie—think and then tell your neighborLorie—think and then tell your neighbor
18. Students need… Repeated reading
Large quantities of reading
19. Teaching for Improvement of Fluency Explicit teaching
Involve students in making a rubric
Self evaluation or peer evaluation
Practice, Practice, Practice!
20. Sample 3rd grade rubric (Ganzeveld, 2007)
21. Classroom Practices to Improve Fluency Choral reading
Tape student reading for self-evaluation HeidiHeidi
22. Resources to Improve Fluency Poetry
Reader’s Theater scripts
23. Poetry and Chants Rhyming poetry
Short fun chants
All can build fluency, phonics skills & sight vocabulary
~Rasinski, Rupley, and Nichols, 2008
24. Dandelion There was a dandelion,
With lovely, fluffy hair
That glistened in the sunshine,
And in the summer air.
And oh! This pretty dandelion
Soon grew old and grey,
And, sad to tell! Her charming hair,
Blew many miles away. Beed—do as echo. Then have them decide how to read at tables. Person with low voice. Frogs. A ghost. (be quiet b/c others will be guessing)Beed—do as echo. Then have them decide how to read at tables. Person with low voice. Frogs. A ghost. (be quiet b/c others will be guessing)
25. Vivian Venn—chant/poetry “I love it, I love it,”
Said Vivian Venn.
“How does it go?
Let’s say it again.” Beed—from Mem Fox. Saw a second grade teacher in Harlem using this. All read the chant. Then someone who is ready raises his/her hand and says a nursery rhyme quickly. I’ll model one. Everyone read with me. (then I say Mary had a little lamb, etc.)Beed—from Mem Fox. Saw a second grade teacher in Harlem using this. All read the chant. Then someone who is ready raises his/her hand and says a nursery rhyme quickly. I’ll model one. Everyone read with me. (then I say Mary had a little lamb, etc.)
26. Songs Repeated readings
27. Yankee Doodle Yankee Doodle went to town
A-riding on a pony
Stuck a feather in his cap
And called it macaroni.
Yankee Doodle, keep it up
Yankee Doodle dandy
Mind the music and the step
And with the girls be handy. HeidiHeidi
28. Reader’s Theater Story scripts for performance
Repeated readings in rehearsal
Performance provides authentic purpose
Where the Wild Things Are, Sendak, 1988 SherriSherri
29. Where the wild things are Reader’s Theater
CHild 4 &
37. Websites Starfall
Reader's Theater scripts
Lorie & HeidiLorie & Heidi
38. Skills Enhanced Include… Listening skills
~Rasinski, 2006 Lorie—skills enhanced by these practices include…Lorie—skills enhanced by these practices include…
39. Reflection-Quick Write After hearing the presentation, what new fluency strategies will you implement in your classroom?
40. Questions? SherriSherri
43. References Rasinski, T.V. (2006). Reading fluency instruction: Moving beyond accuracy, automaticity,
and prosody. The Reading Teacher, 59 (7), 704 – 706.
Rasinski, T.V. & Hoffman, J.V. (2003). Theory and research into practice: Oral reading
in the school literacy curriculum. Reading Research Quarterly, 38 (4), 510 – 522.
Rasinski, T.V., Rupley, W.H., & Nichols, W.D. (2008). Synergistic phonics and fluency
instruction: The Magic of rhyming poetry! The New England Reading Association Journal,
Young, C., & Rasinski, T.V. (2009). Implementing readers theatre as an approach to
classroom fluency instruction. The Reading Teacher, 63 (1), 4 – 13.
References – Fluency Websites
KIDiddles.com. (1998 – 2009). KIDiddles classic children’s songs and folk songs. Found at
Kidoons, Inc. Found at http://www.classicfairytales.com/en/main.
Shepard, Aaron. (1996 – 2009). Aaron Shepard’s reader’s theatre. Found at
Starfall Education. (2007). Starfall at http://www.starfall.com
44. Thank you!