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Fluency

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    1. Fluency Elementary Literacy and Reading Recovery Conference ~ April 23, 2010

    2. PennyPenny

    3. Objectives 1. Define fluency 2. Share current research on fluency 3. Demonstrate activities to increase fluency for struggling readers BeedBeed

    4. Five essential components K-3 1) Phonemic awareness 2) Phonics 3) Fluency 4) Vocabulary 5) Comprehension ~National Reading Panel Report, 2000 LorieLorie

    5. Grades K-12 Essential Skill and Concept Read with fluency silently and aloud to support comprehension. ~Iowa Core Curriculum - Literacy SherriSherri

    6. Quickwrite Take one minute to write down your definitionof fluency. SherriSherri

    7. FLUENCY is . . . . . . .. the ability to read the words in a text with sufficient accuracy, automaticity, and prosody to lead to good comprehension. ~Rasinski, 2006 HeidiHeidi

    8. Skills Necessary for Automaticity Oral language skills Phonemic awareness Familiarity with letter forms Efficient decoding skills ~Pikulski & Chard, 2005 HeidiHeidi

    9. Skills Necessary for Prosody Expression Appropriate pace Smoothness Volume Phrasing ~Rasinski, 2004 HeidiHeidi

    10. Problems with Prosody Poor prosody can lead readers "to confusion through inappropriate or meaningless groupings of words or through inappropriate applications of expression" (Hudson, Lane, & Pullen, 2005, p. 703). LorieLorie

    11. Aspects of Fluency Clip #1 Fluent readers can recognize words both automatically and accurately and are able to read texts with expression or prosody. (Kuhn, 2005). HeidiHeidi

    12. Aspects of Fluency Clip #2 "Speed reading is not fluency. If a child reads quickly, but doesn't understand, that isn't fluent." ~Young & Rasinski, 2009 LorieLorie

    13. Aspects of Fluency Clip #3 "Fluent oral reading should simply sound like natural speech" (Young & Rasinski, 2009). LorieLorie

    14. Characteristics of students struggling with fluency 1) Too many decoding errors 2) Effort exhausts cognitive resources which should be devoted to comprehension 3) Unable to put accurate words together in a way that adds appropriate and meaningful expression SherriSherri

    15. Quote Any of these result in poor comprehension, lack of enthusiasm for reading, and a personal sense of failure. ~Rasinski, 2006 Sherri--So what can we do to help those students who are struggling with fluency?Sherri--So what can we do to help those students who are struggling with fluency?

    16. Caution! "In many fluency programs students engage in rote and somewhat mindless oral repetitions of texts for the primary purpose of increasing reading speed. As a result students may gain a perception of reading as being something that is done fast and is void of enjoyment and interest." ~Rasinski, Rupley, and Nichols, 2008 LorieLorie

    17. Take a minute and think How do you currently teach fluency in your classroom? Loriethink and then tell your neighborLoriethink and then tell your neighbor

    18. Students need Repeated reading Large quantities of reading Explicit instruction Modeling BeedBeed

    19. Teaching for Improvement of Fluency Explicit teaching Practice Involve students in making a rubric Self evaluation or peer evaluation Practice, Practice, Practice! HeidiHeidi

    20. Sample 3rd grade rubric (Ganzeveld, 2007)

    21. Classroom Practices to Improve Fluency Choral reading Repeated reading Echo reading Peer reading Tape student reading for self-evaluation HeidiHeidi

    22. Resources to Improve Fluency Poetry Chants Songs Readers Theater scripts Websites/Technology HeidiHeidi

    23. Poetry and Chants Rhyming poetry Short fun chants All can build fluency, phonics skills & sight vocabulary ~Rasinski, Rupley, and Nichols, 2008 BeedBeed

    24. Dandelion There was a dandelion, With lovely, fluffy hair That glistened in the sunshine, And in the summer air. And oh! This pretty dandelion Soon grew old and grey, And, sad to tell! Her charming hair, Blew many miles away. Beeddo as echo. Then have them decide how to read at tables. Person with low voice. Frogs. A ghost. (be quiet b/c others will be guessing)Beeddo as echo. Then have them decide how to read at tables. Person with low voice. Frogs. A ghost. (be quiet b/c others will be guessing)

    25. Vivian Vennchant/poetry I love it, I love it, Said Vivian Venn. How does it go? Lets say it again. Beedfrom Mem Fox. Saw a second grade teacher in Harlem using this. All read the chant. Then someone who is ready raises his/her hand and says a nursery rhyme quickly. Ill model one. Everyone read with me. (then I say Mary had a little lamb, etc.)Beedfrom Mem Fox. Saw a second grade teacher in Harlem using this. All read the chant. Then someone who is ready raises his/her hand and says a nursery rhyme quickly. Ill model one. Everyone read with me. (then I say Mary had a little lamb, etc.)

    26. Songs Repeated readings Authentic purpose Engaging HeidiHeidi

    27. Yankee Doodle Yankee Doodle went to town A-riding on a pony Stuck a feather in his cap And called it macaroni. Yankee Doodle, keep it up Yankee Doodle dandy Mind the music and the step And with the girls be handy. HeidiHeidi

    28. Readers Theater Story scripts for performance Repeated readings in rehearsal Performance provides authentic purpose Where the Wild Things Are, Sendak, 1988 SherriSherri

    29. Where the wild things are Readers Theater 6 readers: Narrator, CHild 1, Child 2, Child 3, CHild 4 & Max

    37. Websites Starfall Fairy Tales Songs Reader's Theater scripts Lorie & HeidiLorie & Heidi

    38. Skills Enhanced Include Listening skills Decoding Vocabulary development Comprehension Fluency ~Rasinski, 2006 Lorieskills enhanced by these practices includeLorieskills enhanced by these practices include

    39. Reflection-Quick Write After hearing the presentation, what new fluency strategies will you implement in your classroom? SherriSherri

    40. Questions? SherriSherri

    41. References

    42. References

    43. References Rasinski, T.V. (2006). Reading fluency instruction: Moving beyond accuracy, automaticity, and prosody. The Reading Teacher, 59 (7), 704 706. Rasinski, T.V. & Hoffman, J.V. (2003). Theory and research into practice: Oral reading in the school literacy curriculum. Reading Research Quarterly, 38 (4), 510 522. Rasinski, T.V., Rupley, W.H., & Nichols, W.D. (2008). Synergistic phonics and fluency instruction: The Magic of rhyming poetry! The New England Reading Association Journal, 44(1), 914. Young, C., & Rasinski, T.V. (2009). Implementing readers theatre as an approach to classroom fluency instruction. The Reading Teacher, 63 (1), 4 13. References Fluency Websites KIDiddles.com. (1998 2009). KIDiddles classic childrens songs and folk songs. Found at http://www.kididdles.com/lyrics/allsongs.html. Kidoons, Inc. Found at http://www.classicfairytales.com/en/main. Shepard, Aaron. (1996 2009). Aaron Shepards readers theatre. Found at http://www.aaronshep.com/rt/index.html. Starfall Education. (2007). Starfall at http://www.starfall.com

    44. Thank you!