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REWARDS AND CHALLENGES OF INCLUDING INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES IN A MPA PROGRAM Dr. Barbara S. Liggett Director of the School of Public Affairs and Administration Western Michigan University NASPAA – 2011 Annual Conference Kansas City, MO
What is Internationalization? • Internationalization is an ongoing, counter-hegemonic educational process that occurs in an international context of knowledge and practice where societies are viewed as subsystems of a larger, inclusive world. The process of internationalization at an educational institution entails a comprehensive, multifaceted program of action that is integrated into all aspects of education. (D. Schoorman, 2000)
Internationalization as process… • Internationalization is the process of integrating an international/intercultural dimension into the teaching, research, and service functions of the institution.” (Knight, 1994,1999) • Once an international ethos, or culture, exists, the institution can properly be described as “internationalized.” (Knight, 1999) • The process of integrating an international, intercultural or global dimension into the purpose, functions or delivery of postsecondary education.” (Knight, 2004)
Globalization - Internationalization • Globalization is the flow of technology, economy, knowledge, people, values, ideas…across borders. Globalization affects each country in a different way due to a nation’s individual history, traditions, culture and priorities. • Internationalization of higher education is one of the ways a country responds to the impact of globalization yet, at the same time respects the individuality of the nation. (Knight, 1997; Scott, 1999)
Internationalization • Personal • Process • Systems Approach • Rooted in Theoretical Constructs • Sociocultural models of learning • General Systems (Katz& Kahn, 1978) • Loose Coupling (Weick, 1976) • Critical Pedagogy ( Arnowitz & Giroux, 1991; McLaren, 1998)
Why Internationalize? (Organization’s Perspective) • U.S. Higher Education Survival • Market Demand • Professional Readiness of U.S. Students • NASPAA – diversity standards • University Strategic Plan – “Globally Engaged” • World-View Value
Why Internationalize? (The Faculty Perspective) • Personal Interest • Program Survival • Professional Contribution • Preparation of Students
How does internationalization occur? • Planned • Sporadic – spotty – serendipitous – sneaks in upon you…
Setting the Context- Others in WMU MPA • El Salvador • Angola • Dominican Republic • Uganda • Tanzania • Zimbabwe
Setting the Context- U.S. Institutions Hosting International Students 2009/2010
A Case Study • WMU 2010 enrollment = 25,045 • WMU International enrollment =5,079 • WMU International Graduate Enrollment = 602 • WMU MPA enrollment = 297 • WMU MPA international enrollment = 13
Western Michigan University - MPA 0 12 2011
MPA Program • 39-42 credit hours • Core courses plus concentration • Health Care • Human Resources • Law (with J.D.) • Nonprofit • Public Management (Local/State Government) • Evening Classes (+ weekend/hybrid/online) • Three campus sites 0-70 miles • 12 month course offerings
Challenges – MPA Students’ Perspectives (N= 12) The Expected (and from literature) The WMU Experience The Expected plus Weather – Brrrrrrrrrrrrr…….. Evenings/Weekends Travel Distance – Transportation Fear of Racial Conflict - Detroit • Language • Intonation • Pace of speaking • Colloquialisms • Reading – amount • Writing • Group Work • Technology • (Oral Presentations)
Challenges – MPA Faculty Perspectives (N= 9) The Usual (and from the literature) WMU The Usual plus Missing knowledge of U.S. Government Systems Analytical, synthesis, integration skills Socialization – apart from other graduate students by nature of the program’s offerings • Language • Reading – amount • Writing • Learning Styles • Hesitancy to Engage in Group Work
Rewards – Perspectives Student Perspectives Faculty Perspectives Variety in the classroom adds dimension Creates positive tension among students – idea exchange Updates global knowledge of faculty member • An Adventure • Different teaching styles • Different classroom expectations • “Pushed” my confidence • Opportunity to experience U.S. public/npo workplace • New friendships • NEW INFO/NEW LEARNING
Recruitment of International Students • Alumni/Current International Students • University Graduate Admissions • School of Public Affairs and Administration Website • Fulbright • “In-house” collaborations • WMU Haenicke Institute for Global Education • Community “sister cities”, Colleagues International organizations, Business Partners • U.S. Department of State Staff – Scholar-in-Residence
Course Design Modifications • Pace • Faculty • Assignments • Tracks – options • Comparative opportunities
Moving Beyond the Tourist… • Tourist • the perfunctory view of leadership in different cultures and contexts (“snapshots”) • Colporteur • Management gurus traveling the globe peddling theories and ideologies (peddler of religious books), imposing particular values and ideas on others • Confrere • Colleague who is consulted and valued on an equal basis, a genuine and reciprocal interest in each other’s situational problems is developed; strive to understand each other points of view; mutual understanding; shared knowledge • (Walker and Dimmock, 2004)
References Arenas, E. (2009). How teachers’ attitudes affect their approaches to teaching international students. Higher Education Research & Development, 28(6), 615-628. Barnett, B. G. (2006). Emerging trends in international leadership education. Journal of Research on Leadership Education, 1(1), 1-4. Bakhurst, D. (1991). Consciousness and revolution in Soviet philosophy. From the Bolsheviks to Evil Ilyenkov. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bourdieu, P. (1977). The economics of linguistic exchanges. Social Science Information, 16(6), 645-68. Burke, W. (2002). Organization change: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Cameron, K. (1984). Organizational adaption and higher education. Journal of Higher Education, 55(2), 122-144. Capra, F. (1996). The web of life. New York: Anchor Books. Culbertson, J. (1979). Improve educational policy and administration: The role of international organizations, learned societies, and professional associations. Paper presented at the Inter-American Congress on Educational Administration, Brasilia, Brazil (December). Culbertson, J. (1981). International networking: Expanded vistas for leadership development. Theory into Practice, 20(4), 278-284. DeCieri, H., Fenwick, M., & Hutchings, K. (2005). The challenge of international human resource management: Balancing the duality of strategy and practice. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(4), 584-598. Hurd, D. (2007). Leading transformational change: A study of internationalization at three universities in the United States. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton.
References Cont. Kim, H. Y. (2011). International graduate students’ difficulties: Graduate classes as a community of practices. Teaching in Higher Education, 16(3), 281-292. Knight, J. (2004). Internationalization remodeled: Definition, approaches, and rationales. Journal of Studies in International Education, 8(1), 5-31. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. 1991. Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Leestma, R. (1969, May). OE’s Institute of International studies. American Education. Leithwood, K. (2005). Understanding successful principal leadership: Progress on a broken front. Journal of Educational Administration, 43(6), 619-629. Rogoff, B. (1995). Observing sociocultural activity on three planes: Participatory appropriate, guided participation, and apprenticeship. In J. Wertsch, P. del Rio, and A. Alvarez (Eds.), Sociocultural studies of mind (139-164). Boston, MA: Cambridge University Press. Schoorman, D. (2000). What really do we mean by “internationalization?” Contemporary Education 71(4), 5-11. Schoorman, D. (1999). The pedagogical implications of diverse conceptualizations of internationalism: A US-based case study. Journal of Studies of International Education, 3(2), 19-46. Scott, P. (1998). Massification, internationalization and globalization. In P. Scott (Ed.), The globalization of higher education (108-129). Buckingham: Open University Press. Suarez-Orozco, M. & Qin-Hilliard, D. (2004). Globalization: Culture and education in the new millennium. In M. Suarez-Orozco & D. Qin-Hilliard (Eds.), Globalization: Culture and education in the new millennium (1-37). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
References Cont. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological process. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Weick, K. (1976). Educational organizations as loosely coupled systems. Administrative Science Quarterly, 21, 1-19. Walker, A., & Dimmock, C. (2004). The international role of the NCSL: Tourist, colporteur or confrere? Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 32(3), 269-287. Walker, W. (1972). Centralization and decentralization: An international viewpoint of an American dilemma. Eugene: University of Oregon, Special Center for the Advanced Study of Educational Administration. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Information • Contact: Barbara S. Liggett, Ed.D., SPHR – Director of the School of Public Affairs and Administration, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008; email: firstname.lastname@example.org • Notice: All materials provided for this presentation at the 2011 NASPAA conference are protected. Please do not share, reprint, duplicate, or copy in any way without the written permission of Dr. Barbara S. Liggett.