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Basic Medical Terminology 1. Introduction. Medical words are used daily media doctors, nurses working life Examples arthritis hepatitis anemia Useful to learn medical terminology. Objectives. Enable you to understand the common medical terms

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introduction
Introduction
  • Medical words are used daily
    • media
    • doctors, nurses
    • working life
  • Examples
    • arthritis
    • hepatitis
    • anemia
  • Useful to learn medical terminology
objectives
Objectives
  • Enable you to understand the common medical terms
  • Allow you to explore and learn the vocabulary of the medical field
  • Equip you with knowledge useful for daily work in the health care setting
lecture schedule
Lecture Schedule
  • Lecture 1
    • Introduction
    • Word Structure and Analysis
    • Suffixes
  • Lecture 2
    • Prefixes
    • Enlarging your medical vocabulary
introduction1
Introduction
  • Most medical terms come from
    • Greek language
      • diagnosis, surgery
    • Latin languages
      • anatomical names
  • Many sound mysterious
    • but can be easily worked out
word structure
Word Structure
  • All words have a word root
    • eg: trans/port

ex/port

  • Compound words
    • words with 2 or more roots
    • eg: grand-father

fire-fighter

word structure1
Word Structure
  • Vowel
    • often added to a root word
    • allows formation of a compound word
    • makes pronunciation easier
  • Combining form
    • word root + vowel
    • eg: therm/o/meter

micr/o/scope

word structure2
Word Structure
  • Suffix
    • attached to root
    • eg: practition-er
  • Medical terms
    • like jigsaw puzzle
    • divided into several parts
  • Example
    • HEMATOLOGY
        • HEMAT /O/LOGY
word analysis
Suffix

Root

(“study of”)

(“blood”)

Word Analysis
  • 1st step
    • look at end of the word
    • suffix
  • 2nd step
    • look at beginning
    • root word
      • gives meaning of term
  • 3rd step
    • combining vowel
    • usually consists of vowel “o”

HEMAT/O/LOGY

Combining vowel

word analysis1
Suffix

Root

Combining vowel

(“study of”)

(“blood”)

Word Analysis

HEMAT / O / LOGY

  • the study of blood
electr o cardi o gram
Root

Suffix

Root

Electr/o/cardi/o/gram
  • suffix
    • “gram” - a record
  • 1st root
    • “electr” - electricity
  • 2nd root
    • “cardi” - heart
  • combining vowel
    • “o” -connects roots with suffix
word analysis2
Word Analysis

Electrocardiogram

    • record of the electricity in the heart
  • combining form
    • combining vowel + root
    • eg: cardi/o
      • heart
    • eg: electr/o
      • electricity
gastr o enter o logy
Root

Suffix

Root

Gastr/o/enter/o/logy
  • Suffix
    • logy
  • 1st combining form
    • gastr/o
  • 2nd combining form
    • enter/o
  • study of the stomach and intestines
word analysis3
Word Analysis
  • Gastr/o/scope
    • suffix scope
      • instrument to visually examine
    • combining form gastr/o
      • stomach
    • instrument to visually examine the stomach
word analysis4
Word Analysis
  • Gastr/ic
    • suffix
      • adjective: pertaining to
      • combining vowel is dropped when suffix begins with a vowel
    • root
      • stomach
    • pertaining to stomach
word analysis5
Word Analysis
  • Cardi/ac
    • suffix
      • adjective: pertaining to
      • combining vowel dropped
    • root
      • heart
    • pertaining to the heart
word analysis6
Word Analysis
  • Enter/itis
    • suffix
      • inflammation
      • combing vowel dropped
    • root
      • intestines
    • inflammation of the intestines
suffixes1
Suffixes
  • attached to the end of root words to further its meaning
  • 2 groups
    • those that describe diagnoses
      • describe condition of patient
    • those that describe procedures
diagnostic suffixes
Diagnostic Suffixes
  • -algia
    • pain
    • eg: neuralgia

arthralgia

  • -itis
    • inflammation
    • eg: arthritis

carditis

diagnostic suffixes1
Diagnostic Suffixes
  • -ia
    • a state or condition
    • eg: bradycardia

pneumonia

  • -osis
    • abnormal condition
    • eg: neurosis
diagnostic suffixes2
Diagnostic Suffixes
  • -iasis
    • condition, formation of
    • presence of stone (lith-)
    • eg: nephrolithiasis
  • -genic
    • origin, producing
    • eg: neurogenic causes

pathogenic bacteria

diagnostic suffixes3
Diagnostic Suffixes
  • -emia
    • condition involving blood
    • eg: anemia

septicemia, bacteremia

  • -megaly
    • enlargement
    • eg: acromegaly

hepatomegaly, cardiomegaly

diagnostic suffixes4
Diagnostic Suffixes
  • -oma
    • tumor, swelling
    • eg: breast adenoma
  • -oid
    • being like, resembling
    • eg: uterine fibroid
  • -lysis
    • break down, loosening
    • eg: hemolysis
procedural suffixes
Procedural Suffixes
  • describe medical procedures
    • looking into body parts
    • types of surgical repair
    • removal of body part
  • examples
    • -ectomy
    • -otomy
    • -scopy
procedural suffixes1
Procedural Suffixes
  • -ectomy
    • excision of, removal of
    • may or may not remove entire organ
    • eg: tonsillectomy

hepatectomy

  • -otomy
    • a surgical incision
    • eg: craniotomy, laparotomy
procedural suffixes2
Procedural Suffixes
  • -centesis
    • surgical puncture with a needle
    • eg: amniocentesis

thoracocentesis

  • -scopy
    • insertion of an instrument to visualize
    • eg: gastroscopy, cystoscopy
procedural suffixes3
Procedural Suffixes
  • -plasty
    • surgical correction, plastic repair
    • eg: hip arthroplasty
  • -ostomy
    • operation to create opening (stoma)
    • eg: colostomy
other suffixes
Other Suffixes
  • do not fit into either category
  • -logy
    • study of
    • eg: biology

cardiology

  • -form
    • shape
    • eg: deformed
other suffixes1
Other Suffixes
  • -gram, -graph
    • a written record
    • eg:
      • electrocardiogram
      • polygraph machine
        • measures several parameters
other suffixes2
Other Suffixes
  • -graphy
    • process of recording
    • eg: photography
review
Review
  • Root word
    • gives essential meaning of term
  • Suffix
    • word end
  • Combining vowel
    • connects root to suffix /other roots
  • Combining form
    • combination of root and combining vowel
test your knowledge
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE

1. All words have a

A. root

B. vowel

C. prefix

test your knowledge1
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE

2. The root in the medical term “tonsillitis” is

A. itis

B. sill

C. tonsill

3. “Fasciotomy” is an example of a

A. simple word

B. compound word

C. combining word

test your knowledge2
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE

4. When you analyze a medical term, begin at the

A. beginning of the word

B. middle of the word

C. end of the word

5. Adding a vowel to a root results in a

A. prefix

B. combining form

C. complex word

test your knowledge3
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE

6. Which of the following can be used to divide words into their word parts?

A. /

B. =

C. …

7. Which of the following combinations do not need a combining vowel?

A. dermat + itis

B. micr + scopy

C. dermat + logy

test your knowledge4
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE

8. Combining forms

A. are always used to end a medical term

B. are never connected to a suffix

C. are never used to end a medical term

9. The word gastroduodenoscopy has

A. 1 root

B. 2 roots

C. 3 roots

test your knowledge5
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE

10. In the word “ physiology”, the suffix is

A. phy

B. physio

C. logy

slide41
Divide each of the following words into their component parts

Word Root wordCombining Vowel Suffix

Cardiologist

Biology

Mammogram

Bronchoscopy

Arthritis

Inguinal

Pneumonia

Oncologist

Cardiologist

Biology

Mamm o gram

Bronch o scopy

Arthr - itis

Inguin -al

Pneumon - ia

Onc ologist

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