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Qualitative Non-numerical Based on direct observation Equipment not necessary Focus on time and space Examples: Rotation of femur during golf swing Adduction of humerus during freestyle swim. Quantitative Numerical Based on data collected Equipment necessary Focus on forces

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basic terminology
Qualitative

Non-numerical

Based on direct observation

Equipment not necessary

Focus on time and space

Examples:

Rotation of femur during golf swing

Adduction of humerus during freestyle swim

Quantitative

Numerical

Based on data collected

Equipment necessary

Focus on forces

Examples:

Stress on shoulder during baseball pitch

Compression force on femur during landing

Basic Terminology
areas of study
Areas of Study
  • Biomechanics vs. Kinesiology
  • Anatomy vs. Functional Anatomy
  • Linear vs. Angular Motion
  • Kinematics vs. Kinetics
biomechanics vs kinesiology
Biomechanics vs. Kinesiology
  • Kinesiology:
    • Scientific study of human movement
    • Anatomical, physiological, psychological, biomechanical
  • Biomechanics:
    • Application of mechanics to biological systems
    • More specific than kinesiology
anatomy vs functional anatomy
Anatomy vs. Functional Anatomy
  • Anatomy
    • Structure of the body
    • Focus on structure
    • Example: Study of biceps brachii
  • Functional Anatomy
    • Body components necessary to achieve goal
    • Focus on function
    • Example: Analysis of bicep curl
linear vs angular motion
Linear vs. Angular Motion
  • Linear Motion
    • AKA translation or translational motion
    • Movement on straight or curved pathway
    • All points move same distance, same time
  • Angular Motion
    • Motion around some point
kinematics vs kinetics
Kinematics vs. Kinetics
  • Both are biomechanical analyses
  • Kinematics
    • Examines space and time
  • Kinetics
    • Examines forces
statics vs dynamics
Statics vs. Dynamics
  • Statics
    • Examines systems not moving or moving at a constant speed
    • Equilibrium: no acceleration
    • Example: Spaceship gliding through space
  • Dynamics
    • Examines systems that are being accelerated
    • Example: Softball pitch
stress strain curve
Stress-Strain Curve
  • Stress (σ)
    • Force applied to deform a structure
    • Force per unit area
    • Measured in N/m2 or pascals
    • σ=F/A
  • Strain (ε)
    • Deformation caused by applied stress
    • ε=ΔL/L
stress strain curve cont
Stress-Strain Curve(cont.)
  • Elastic modulus (k)
    • Stiffness of a material
    • k=stress/strain=σ/ε
  • Residual strain
    • Difference between original length and length resulting from stress into the plastic region
  • Safety factor
    • 5–10x typical stress on structure

Insert figure 1-9.

stored mechanical energy
Stored Mechanical Energy
  • Proportional to area under stress-strain curve
  • ME=½σε
  • Spring, rubber band, trampoline

Insert figure 1-12.

types of materials
Types of Materials
  • Elastic
    • Linear relationship between stress and strain
  • Viscoelastic
    • Non-linear relationship between stress and strain
    • Hysteresis: energy lost in a viscoelastic material
skeleton
Skeleton
  • Axial
    • Head
    • Neck
    • Trunk
  • Appendicular
    • Upper extremities
    • Lower extremities

Insert figure 1-16, only the part labeled with the segments of the axial and appendicular skeleton.

reference positions
Reference Positions
  • Anatomical position
    • Standard reference point
    • Palms face front
  • Fundamental position
    • Similar to anatomical position
    • Arms more relaxed
    • Palms face inward
  • Relative angle
    • Included angle between two segments
relative position
Relative Position
  • Medial – toward midline of the body
  • Lateral – away from midline of the body
  • Proximal – toward point of attachment
  • Distal – away from point of attachment
  • Superior – toward the top of the head
  • Inferior – toward the bottom of the feet
relative position cont
Relative Position(cont.)
  • Anterior – front, ventral
  • Posterior – back, dorsal
  • Ipsilateral – on the same side
  • Contralateral – on opposite sides
flexion extension
Flexion & Extension
  • Flexion
    • Decreasing joint angle
  • Extension
    • Increasing joint angle
  • Hyperflexion
    • Flexion beyond normal range
  • Hyperextension
    • Extension beyond normal range
abduction adduction
Abduction & Adduction
  • Abduction
    • Moving away from midline
  • Adduction
    • Moving toward midline
  • Hyperabduction
    • Abduction past 180° point
  • Hyperadduction
    • Adduction past 0° point
other movement descriptors
Other Movement Descriptors
  • Rotation
    • Medial (internal) or lateral (external)
    • Right/left for head & trunk
  • Lateral flexion
    • Head or trunk only
    • Example: head tilts sideways
  • Circumduction
    • Movement in a conic fashion
movement of the scapulae
Movement of the Scapulae
  • Elevation – raising the scapula (shrug)
  • Depression – lowering the scapula
  • Protraction – move scapulae apart
  • Retraction – move scapulae together
  • Upward rotation – bottom of scapula moves away from trunk, top moves toward
  • Downward rotation – return to normal
specialized movement descriptors
Specialized Movement Descriptors
  • Horizontal adduction
    • Combination of flexion & adduction
  • Horizontal abduction
    • Combination of extension & abduction
  • Supination – turn palms frontward
  • Pronation – turn palms backward
  • Radial flexion – hand toward thumb
  • Ulnar flexion – hand toward little finger
movement descriptors of the foot
Movement Descriptors of the Foot
  • Plantarflexion
    • Increase angle between foot and shank
  • Dorsiflexion
    • Decrease angle between foot and shank
  • Inversion
    • Lift medial edge of foot
  • Eversion
    • Lift lateral edge of foot
pronation supination of the foot
Pronation & Supination of the Foot
  • Pronation & supination of the feet are not the same as inversion & eversion
  • Pronation of the foot
    • Dorsiflexion at the ankle
    • Eversion in the tarsals
    • Abduction of the forefoot
  • Supination of the foot
    • Plantarflexion at the ankle
    • Inversion in the tarsals
    • Adduction of the forefoot
reference systems
Reference Systems
  • Necessary for accurate observation & description
  • Fundamental & anatomical positions
  • Axes
    • Imaginary lines that intersect at right angles
  • Origin
    • Point of intersection of axes
absolute vs relative
Absolute vs. Relative
  • Relative
    • Segment movement described relative to the adjacent segment
  • Absolute
    • Axes intersect in the center of a joint
planes axes
Planes & Axes
  • Plane
    • Flat, two-dimensional surface
  • Cardinal planes
    • Planes positioned at right angles and intersecting the center of mass
  • Axis of rotation
    • Point about which movement occurs
    • Perpendicular to plane of motion
cardinal planes
Cardinal Planes
  • Sagittal
    • Left & right halves
    • Mediolateral axis
  • Frontal (coronal)
    • Front & back halves
    • Anteroposterior axis
  • Transverse (horizontal)
    • Upper & lower halves
    • Longitudinal axis
  • Many other planes exist
degrees of freedom
Degrees of Freedom
  • Degree of freedom
    • Number of planes in which a joint has the ability to move
  • 1 degree of freedom
    • Uniaxial
    • Example: Elbow
  • 2 degrees of freedom
    • Biaxial
    • Example: Wrist
  • 3 degrees of freedom
    • Triaxial
    • Example: Shoulder
summary
Summary
  • Human movement analyzed using…
    • Qualitative analysis
    • Quantitative analysis
  • Materials & structures analyzed using…
    • Stress-strain curve
  • Movement described…
    • Using anatomical movement descriptors
    • In relation to planes of motion