Medical Terminology. Class #3. Medical Terminology. Do page one of your medical terminology worksheet. Take a break when you are finished. Prefixes – a word element at the beginning of the word to alter its meaning. A prefix can not stand alone; it must be combined with a root word.
Prefixes – a word element at the beginning of the word to alter its meaning. A prefix can not stand alone; it must be combined with a root word
A-, an-Without or not Intro-Into; within Ab-Away from
Leuk-White Ad-Toward Macro-Large
Ante-Before, forward Mal-Bad, illness, disease Anti-Against
Mega-Large Auto-Self Micro-Small
Bi-Double, two Mono-One, single Circum-Around
Neo-New Contra-Against, opposite Non-Not
Para-Abnormal Per-By, through Peri-Around
Poly-Many, much Ecto-Outer, outside Post-After, behind
En-In, into, within Endo-Inner, inside Pro-Before, in front
Epi-Over, on Re-Again Eryth-Red
Retro-Backward Ex-Out, out of Semi-Half
Hemi-Half Sub-Under Hyper-Excessive
Super- Above, over Hypo-Under, decreased Supra-Above, over
In-In, into, within, not Trans-Across Inter-Between
Root words – provide the fundamental meaning of a term. Combinations of rootwords, prefixes and suffixes form medical and scientific terms. A vowel, called a combining vowel, often is added when two root words are combined or a suffix is added to a root word; the combining vowel is usually an o or an i.
Abdomin (o)Abdomen Neur (o)Nerve Aden (o)Gland
Ocul (o)Eye Adren (o) gland Orth (o)Straight, normal
Angi (o)Vessel Oste (o)Bone Arterio (o)Artery
Ot (o)Ear Arthr (o)Joint Ped (o)Child, foot
Broncho (o)bronchi Cardi (o)Heart Phleb (o)Vein
Cephal (o)Head Pnea Breathing Chondr (o)Cartilage
Pneum (0)Lung, air, gas Col (o)Colon Proct (o)Rectum
Cost (o)Rib Psych (o)Mind Crani (o)Skull
Pulm (o)Lung Cyan (o) Blue Py (o)Pus
Cyst (o)Bladder, cyst Rect (o)Rectum Cyt (o)Cell
Rhin (o)Nose Derma Skin Sten (o)Narrow, constriction
Duoden (o)Duodenum Stran (o)Sternum Encephal (o)Brain
Stomat (o)Mouth Enter (o)Intestines Therm (o)Heat
Fibro (o)Fiber, fibrous Thorac (o)Chest Gastr (o)Stomach
Thromb (o)Clot, thrombus hyr (o)Thyroid Toxic (o)Poison, poisonous
Hepat (o)Liver Trache (o)Trachea Hydr (o)Water
Hyster (o)Uterus Ile (o), ili (o)Ileum Urin (o)Urine
Uter (o)Uterus Mamm (o)Breast Vas (o)Blood vessel, vas deferens
My (o)Muscle Ven (o)Vein Myel (o)Spinal cord, bone marrow
Vertebr (o)Spine, vertebrae Nephr (o)kidney
Suffixes – a word element placed at the end of a root word to alter the meaning of the word. Suffixes, like prefixes, can not stand alone, they must accompany a root word. The suffix should be the starting point when interpreting medical terms.
-gram=Record -graphy=Making a record
iasis=Condition of -scope=Examination instrument
-ism=Condition -scopy=Examination using a scope
-it is=Inflammation -logy=Study of
-lysis=Destruction of -uria=Condition of the urine
Abbreviations – shortened form of words or phrases. A. Used as written communication to save time and space B. When using abbreviations, provide an abbreviation key
Abd=Abdomen IBW=Ideal Body Weight
Ad lib=As desired id=The same
lig=ligament alt noct=Alternate nights
Indication – a condition for which an approach would be beneficial for health enhancement, treatment of a particular condition, or support of a treatment modality other than massage
Contraindication – a condition or factor that may make an approach harmful.
Contraindications may be subdivided by severity:
1. General avoidance of application – do not massage
2. Regional avoidance of application – avoid a particular area
3. Application with caution – requires supervision from medical or
supervising personnel – massage but carefully select types of methods
to be used, duration of application, frequency and intensity of massage.
Directional Terms – used to describe the way one body part relates to another
1. Superior / cranial or cephalad
2. Inferior / caudal
3. Anterior / ventral
4. Posterior / dorsal
B. Anatomic Planes
1. Transverse plane
2. Frontal/coronal plane
3. Medial/sagittal plane
C. Positional Terms
1. Anatomic position – stance of the body when erect, arms hanging at the sides, palms facing forward
2. Erect position – the body in a standing position
3. Supine position – the body lying in a horizontal position with face up
4. Prone position – the body in horizontal position with face down
5. Laterally recumbent position – the body lying horizontally on either the right or left side
Tissue – a collection of similar cells acting together to form a particicular function
Epithelial – closely packed single or stratified layer of cells (skin) covering the body and lining its cavities with the exception of blood and lymph vessels
Connective – tissue that supports and binds other tissue and parts
Muscular – tissues that are contractible – 3 types: cardiac, smooth muscle and skeletal
Nervous – CNS – brain and spinal cord
PNS – cranial and spinal nerves
ANS – nerves in thoracic, lumbar, cranial and sacral segments of the Spinal cord
Histo - tissue
Histology – study of microscopic anatomic and physiologic characteristics of tissues and cells therein
Organ – structural part of a system of the body that is composed of tissue and cells that enable it to perform a particular function
Bone – a dense, hard and somewhat flexible connective tissue
Os, ossa, oste, osteo – having to do with bone
Tendon – any one of the white, glistening bands of dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
Ligament – shiny white flexible bands of fibrous tissue binding joints together and connecting articular bones and cartilages to facilitate movement
Cartilage – a nonvascular dense supporting connective tissue composed of ground substance
Hyaline cartilage – a type of elastic connective tissue composed of Specialized cells in a translucent, pearly blue matrix covering articulating ends of bones
Fibrocartilage – Cartilage that consists of a dense matrix of white collagenous fibers.
Joint – any one of the articulations between bones
Articulation – movements of joints
Bursae – a fibrous sac between certain tendons and the bones beneath them. The bursae acts as a small cushion that allows the tendons to move over the bone as it contracts and releases
Osteoblasts – a bone forming cell during early development of the skeleton, differentiates from a fibroblast to function in the formation of bone tissue
Osteoclasts – a large type of multinucleated bone cell with a large amount of acidophilic cytoplasm that functions to absorb and remove osseos tissue
Manubrium – most anterior of the 3 bones of the sternum
Xiphoid Process – the smallest of 3 parts of the sternum
Malleolus – a rounded bony process such as each side of the ankle
Process – a natural growth that projects from a bone
Crest – a narrow, elongated elevation
Trochanter – one of the two bony projections on the proximal end of the femur that serve as a part of the attachment for various muscles
Tuberosity – an elevation or protuberance especially of the bone
Acute – beginning abruptly with marked intensity or sharpness, then subsiding after a relatively short period of time
Ambulatory – able to walk
Anomoly – deviation from what is regarded as normal
Flaccid – weak, soft and flabby; lacking muscle tone
Hyperkinisia – too much erratic or rhythmic movement
Hypertonicity – excessive tone, tension, activity
Insertion – the place where a muscle attaches to a bone for movement
Origin – the more fixed or proximal attachment of two points of a muscle
Hyperemia – an excess of blood in a part of the body, caused by increased blood flow, as in an inflammatory response, local relaxation of arterioles or obstruction of blood flow from an area. Skin overlaying a hyperemic area usually becomes reddened and warm
Spastic – pertaining to spasms or other uncontrolled contractions of skeletal muscles
Myalgia – diffuse muscle pain, usually accompanied by malaise
Spasm – an involuntary muscle contraction of sudden onset such as habit spasms, hiccups, stuttering or a tic
Fracture – to break - a traumatic injury to the bone in which the continuity of the bone tissue is broken
Osteoarthritis – joint inflammation - a form of arthritis in which one or many joints undergo degenerative changes
Osteochondritis – bone cartilage inflammation. A disease of epiphyses or bone forming centers of the skeleton that begins with necrosis and tissue fragmentation and is followed by repair and regeneration
Osteochondrosis – a disease of the epiphyses, or bone-forming centers of the skeleton, that begins with necrosis and tissue fragmentation and is followed by repair and regeneration.
Osteoporosis – a disorder characterized by abnormal loss of bone density and deterioration of bone tissue, with an increased fracture risk.
Spondylitis – an inflammation of any of the vertebrae, usually characterized by stiffness and pain.
Atrophy – a wasting or decrease in size or physiologic activity of a part of the body because of disease or other influence.
Benign – noncancerous and therefore not an immediate threat.
Chronic – persisting for a long period, often for the remainder of a persons lifetime.
Clinical – pertaining to a clinic, to direct bedside medical or nursing care, to materials or equipment used in the care of a sick person.
Diagnosis – identification of a disease or condition by a scientific evaluation of physical signs, symptoms, history, laboratory test results, and procedures.
Local – pertaining to a small circumscribed area of the body
Malignant – tending to become worse and to cause death.
Metastatic – the process by which tumor cells spread to distant parts of the body.
Prognosis – a prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on the condition of the person and the usual course of the disease as observed in similar situations.
Sign – an objective finding as perceived by an examiner, such as fever, rash.
Symptom – a subjective indication of a disease or a change in condition as perceived by the patient.
Syndrome – a complex of signs and symptoms resulting from a common cause or appearing, in combination, to present a clinical picture of a disease or inherited abnormality.
Systemic – pertaining to the whole body rather than to a localized area or region of the body.
Bacterial – of or pertaining to bacteria.
Cancer – a neoplasm characterized by the uncontrolled growth of anaplastic cells that tend to invade surrounding tissue and to metastasize to distant body parts.
Congenital – present at birth, as in anomaly or defect
Degenerative – pertaining to or involving degeneration or change to a lower or dysfunctional form.
Epidemic – affecting a significantly large number of people at the same time.
Exacerbation – an increase in the seriousness of a disease or disorderas marked by greater intensity in the signs and symptoms of the patient being treated
Idiopathic – without a know cause
Infectious – the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms that reproduce and multiply, causing disease by local cellular injury, secretion of a toxin or antigen/antibody reaction in the host.
Trauma – physical injury caused by violent or disruptive action or by the introduction into the body of a toxic substance
Viral – of or pertaining to a virus
Aponeurosis – a strong flat sheet of fibrous connective tissue that serves as a tendon to attach muscles to bone or as fascia to bind muscles together or to other tissues at their origin or insertion.
Belly – the fleshy central bulging portion of a muscle
Clonus – an abnormal pattern of neuromuscular activity, characterized by rapidly alternating involuntary contraction and relaxation of skeletal muscle
Contracture – a abnormal, usually permanent condition of a joint, characterized by flexion and fixation
Cramp – a spasmodic and often painful contraction of one or more muscles
Fascia – the fibrous connective membrane of the body that can be separated from other structures, such as tendon.s