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ECE 526 – Network Processing Systems Design. Ning Weng Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Fall 2008. Welcome Aboard. Who am I? Ning Weng, Assistant Professor in ECE Office: Engineering E119 Email: weng@engr.siu.edu Research interests: Network processor System integration

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ece 526 network processing systems design

ECE 526 – Network Processing Systems Design

Ning Weng

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering

Fall 2008

welcome aboard
Welcome Aboard
  • Who am I?
    • Ning Weng, Assistant Professor in ECE
    • Office: Engineering E119
    • Email: weng@engr.siu.edu
  • Research interests:
    • Network processor
    • System integration
    • Analytical performance modeling
    • Network system security
  • Tell us who you are
    • In one semester

ECE 526

application view others
Application View: Others
  • Other examples:
    • Email
    • File Transfer
    • Firewall
    • IP Phone
    • Virtual Private Network (VPN)
    • E-commerce
    • Games

IP picture frame

http://www.ceiva.com/

Web-enabled toaster +

weather forecaster

ECE 526

abstract view in the beginning
Abstract View: in the Beginning
  • The first 2 nodes on the ARPANET
    • IMP:
      • Interface Message Processors
      • Network manager
      • Evolved to today’s router
    • Client Server Model

ECE 526

nuts and bolts view
Millions of connected computing devices

Running network applications

Client, server

Protocol, service

Host, end node

Network processing systems

Inside the network

Example: router, switch

Throughput

latency

Communication links

fiber, copper, radio, satellite

bandwidth

router

workstation

server

mobile

local ISP

regional ISP

company

network

Nuts and Bolts View

ECE 526

what is the internet summary
What is the Internet: Summary
  • Communication infrastructure enables distributed applications
  • Computational architecture that client requesting service from server
  • A system of interconnected of processing systems
    • Links
    • End nodes
    • Network processing systems
  • What is the network processing system?

ECE 526

what is network processing systems
What is Network Processing Systems?
  • Integral part of the Internet
  • Network processing system determine the properties of the Internet
    • Functionality
    • Performance
    • Reliability
    • Security
  • The key requirement
    • Performance
    • Flexibility
    • Scalability
    • Ease of use

ECE 526

router
Router

ECE 526

what is the course about
What is the Course About?
  • Network Processing System Design
    • What is the minimal set of functionality?
    • How to implement them efficiently?
    • What is the optimal system architecture?
    • How to design a system architecture scalable to next generation networks?
  • Our focus
    • Data-plane (not control plane, routing protocols,…)
    • Packet-based networks
    • Concepts of router functions only
    • Using programmable Intel IXP network processor (instead of a Cisco router)
    • Design in system perspective (no RTL, transistor implementation)

ECE 526

honesty policy
Honesty Policy

Consultation with fellow students is encouraged, especially on design issues. However, directly copying another student's work (past or present) defeats the purpose of the assignments and is an honor code violation. Lab reports, programs, or test answers that are directly copied from another student will result in serious penalties including course failure and possible action by the college disciplinary committee. If in doubt, please consult a TA, the instructor, or the official SIUC Student Conduct Code, section II, article A.

ECE 526

grading
Grading
  • Class participation and Quizzes: 15%
    • Important skill for your professional development
    • One of the best way to learn for you and me!
    • Timely checking the understanding of basic concepts
    • Announced one class period in advance
    • No quiz make-up under any circumstances
    • However you can miss three quizzes
  • Midterm exam: 25%
  • Lab assignments: 15%
    • Get hand-on experiences
    • Four labs including simulation and hardware (maybe)
  • Homework 15%
  • Other 30%
    • Option I (Projects)
      • No more than 5 groups
      • Proposal presentation; final presentation and report
      • Related to network processing, and “experimental” results required
    • Option II - Comprehensive final exam: 25%

ECE 526

textbook
Textbook
  • Douglas Comer: “Network

System Design using

Network Processors,”

Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005.

  • Three parts:
    • “Traditional Protocol Processing Systems” = router architectures, packet processing details
    • “Network Processor Technology” = NP architectures
    • “Example Network Processor” = Intel IXP2400 architecture
  • Classes will follow book

ECE 526

network basics
Contents

Basic terminology

Protocol

Packet

Packet processing

Packet delay

Network systems

Hubs

Bridges

routers

Goals

Familiar with key terms used for this course

Introducing example systems used inside

the Internet

computer networks

Network Basics

ECE 526

complexity of the internet
Complexity of the Internet
  • Internet: “network of networks”
    • loosely hierarchical
    • public Internet versus private intranet
  • Many “pieces”
    • protocols
    • Packet
      • Packet processing
      • Packet Delay
    • Packet processing system
      • Hosts: end node of the Internet
      • Switches, hubs: inside networks
      • Routers: between the networks
      • others

ECE 526

what s a protocol
human protocols:

“what’s the time?”

“I have a question”

introductions

… specific msgs sent

… specific actions taken when msgs received, or other events

network protocols:

machines rather than humans

all communication activity in Internet governed by protocols

What’s a protocol?

Protocol: define format, order of msgs sent and received among network entities, and actions taken on msg transmission, receipt

ECE 526

what s a protocol1
a human protocol and a computer network protocol:

TCP connection

response

Get http://www.awl.com/kurose-ross

Got the

time?

2:00

<file>

time

What’s a protocol?

Hi

TCP connection

request

Hi

Q: Other human protocols?

ECE 526

packet
Packet
  • Packet: Smaller chunks of long message sent by the sender
    • Packet header
      • data preceding the body (data)
      • example: destination IP address, source IP address
    • Packet payload: data plus the upper layer header
    • Packet meta-data: packet specific data such as packet arrival time
  • Generic concept
    • Depends on protocol standard and network technologies
    • frame: packet recognized by hardware, Ethernet frame
    • cell: fixed-sized packet by ATM technology
    • IP packet: varied-sized packet by Internet

ECE 526

packet delay
Packet Delay
  • Packet delay:
    • interval between when packet sent by sender and received by receiver
    • determines the Internet performance and efficiency
    • important for delay sensitive applications: IP Phone, real video
  • Can we reduce Delay? How?
  • First, what are causes of the delay?

ECE 526

four source packet delay

transmission

A

propagation

B

nodal

processing

queueing

Four Source Packet Delay
  • Packet processing delay: time to process packet
    • depends on complexity of application
    • Depends on speed of processing engine
  • Queuing delay
    • time waiting at output link for transmission
    • depends on congestion level of router

ECE 526

four source packet delay1

transmission

A

propagation

B

nodal

processing

queueing

Four Source Packet Delay
  • Transmission delay
    • time to send bits into link = L/R
    • R=link bandwidth (bps)
    • L=packet length (bits)
  • Propagation delay
    • d = length of physical link
    • s = propagation speed in medium (~2x108 m/sec)
    • propagation delay = d/s

ECE 526

queuing delay
R=link bandwidth (bps)

L=packet length (bits)

a=average packet arrival rate

Queuing Delay

traffic intensity = La/R

  • La/R ~ 0: average queueing delay small
  • La/R -> 1: delays become large
  • La/R > 1: more “work” arriving than can be serviced, average delay infinite!

ECE 526

processing delay
Processing Delay
  • Processing delay will increase
  • Better data structure, algorithms and architecture required
  • Reduce average delay by multiprocessors

ECE 526

packet delay summary
Packet Delay: summary
  • We can reduce the transmission and queuing delay by increasing the link bandwidth
  • Transportation delay is minor part
  • Reducing average delay
  • Processing Delay will be the bottleneck
    • Optimized network processing systems design

ECE 526

key system of internet
Key System of Internet
  • Hosts
    • Workstations, servers, PDAs, cell phones
  • Routers

ECE 526

other systems inside network
Other Systems inside Network
  • Hub
    • repeater
  • Bridge
    • Connection between two networks on data link level
    • Isolation of Ethernet collision domains
  • Layer 2 Switch
    • Similar to bridge, multi-ports
    • High throughput
  • VLAN switch
    • Supports several Virtual LANs
    • Emulates several smaller switches

ECE 526

other systems inside internet
Other Systems inside Internet
  • Firewall
    • Block packets to certain internal addresses and ports
    • Maintains list of currently active connections
  • Network Address Translator (NAT)
    • “hides” subnet behind single external IP address
    • Rewrites packets to change IP address and port numbers
  • Load Balancer
    • Distributes web requests to server farm
    • Uses layer 4+ (or layer 7) classification and TCP splicing
  • Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS)
    • Detect unauthorized access to computer system or network
    • Prevent attacks from malicious hackers

ECE 526

summary
Summary
  • Define basic terminology
    • Protocol
    • Packet
    • Packet processing
    • Packet delay
    • Processing system inside network
    • For more terminology: Appendix 1, Comer
  • Discussing example systems inside Computer Networks and the Internet.

ECE 526

for next class
For Next Class
  • Get textbook
  • Read pages 1-24 (Chapters 1-3)

ECE 526