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Network Operating Systems - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Network Operating Systems. ISQA424 Instructor: Rob Knauerhase Portland State University. Chapter 1: Networking with Microsoft Windows NT Server. Learning Objectives. Explain workgroup networking Explain domain networking and the advantages of file server operating systems

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Network operating systems

Network Operating Systems


Instructor: Rob Knauerhase

Portland State University

Learning objectives
Learning Objectives

  • Explain workgroup networking

  • Explain domain networking and the advantages of file server operating systems

  • Present a history of how Windows NT Server evolved

  • Describe the capabilities of Microsoft NT Server


Learning objectives1
Learning Objectives

  • Compare different file systems used by Microsoft NT Server

  • Discuss how Microsoft NT Server is integrated with Internet and intranet applications

Workgroup networking
Workgroup Networking

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server is a network operating system -- software that enables computers on a network to communicate and share resources and files

  • Peer-to-peer network: A network where computers communicate with each other on an equal basis without going through an intermediary

Workgroup networking1
Workgroup Networking

  • Workstation

    • A computer that has its own CPU

    • May be used as a standalone computer for a variety of software applications

  • Workgroup: As used in Microsoft networks, a number of computers (users) who share drive and printer resources in an independent peer-to-peer relationship

A simple peer to peer workgroup
A Simple Peer-to-Peer Workgroup






Workgroup networking2
Workgroup Networking

  • Effective for small networks or offices

  • Less effective when resource management is totally decentralized

    • Offers only moderate network security

    • No centralized storage or account management

    • No point of centralized administrative control

    • Not optimized for heavy multiple access to one computer; potential for slow response

Networking in a domain
Networking in a Domain

  • Domain: A grouping of network users and file servers to make common administrative and security management tasks more efficient

  • File server: A computer that provides files and other services to workstations.

A file server on a network
A File Server on a Network

File server with NT Server operating system





Laptop computer

Advantages of the domain model
Advantages of the Domain Model

  • All members can share computer files

  • Printers and other resources can be shared

  • Access to resources can be centrally controlled and administered

  • Members can share software applications (consistency)


Advantages of the domain model1
Advantages of the Domain Model

  • All computers can be backed up from one location (easily)

  • Sharing of resources can reflect work groupings within the domain

  • Network administrator can save time when installing software upgrades

  • Detailed monitoring and analysis can be done from a central location

A history of microsoft windows nt
A History of Microsoft Windows NT

  • Work began in 1988 when Microsoft had two operating systems

    • MS-DOS (& early Windows versions)

    • OS/2 (co-developed with IBM)

  • Design focused on providing broader capabilities in areas key to business and network users

    • e.g., needed a “real” operating system

    • competitive pressure from Mac, Unix

Microsoft windows nt server capabilities

Sharing resources

Managing resources


Scalability and compatibility



Client/server applications

Electronic mail

Fault tolerance

Microsoft Windows NT Server Capabilities

Sharing resources
Sharing Resources

  • Files needed by several people can be stored at one location

    • Mapped drive: A disk drive that is shared on the network by a file server or workstation. Also known as a drive share.

  • Data are consistent across machines

  • Many kinds of printers can be shared on a network

  • Software can be loaded or run on workstations across network (site license)

Workstations accessing a shared nt server hard drive
Workstations Accessing a Shared NT Server Hard Drive


Windows NT Server

Shared drive



Workstations sharing one printer
Workstations Sharing One Printer





File server


Shared printer



Managing resources
Managing Resources

  • Centralizing management of resources allows a network administrator to simplify network management tasks

  • Network resources

    • File servers

    • Workstations

    • Shared printers

    • Shared folders


  • Windows NT Server has a C2 top secret security rating from the US government

    • File and folder protection

    • Account passwords

    • File, folder, and account auditing

    • File server access protection on a network

    • File server management controls

  • This is a minimum of security; by no means is it perfect.

Scalability and compatibility
Scalability and Compatibility

  • Scalability

    • Works on single-processor and multiprocessor computers

    • Handles small or large databases

  • Compatibility

    • Communicates with IBM, Novell, UNIX, Banyan, DEC, and other systems

    • Works with all (most?) PC hardware, much existing Windows software.


  • The NT Server operating system kernel runs in privileged mode

    • Protects operating system from problems created by malfunctioning program

    • Gives operating system an extra level of security from intruders

    • Prevents system crashes because of out-of-control applications


  • NT Server takes full advantage of multitasking and multithreading capabilities of modern Pentium computers

    • Multitasking: Ability to run two or more programs at the same time

    • Multithreading: Ability to run several program processes or parts (threads) at the same time


  • Distributability: The process of dividing complex application program tasks among two or more computers

  • Windows NT Server handles it through the Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM)

Client server applications
Client/Server Applications

  • Began appearing in late 1980s

  • Provide more information to users than traditional mainframe (unable to meet reporting and data query needs) or file-server-based application systems (unable to handle large databases)

  • Focus on quickly bringing data to customers

Technological tools of client server applications
Technological Tools of Client/Server Applications

  • Relational databases

  • Graphical user interfaces (GUIs)

  • Powerful reporting tools

  • More powerful PC workstations

  • Networks

Relational databases
Relational Databases

  • Store large amounts of data on a server

  • Provide fast access to data for updating, querying, or reporting

  • Store data, voice, and video

  • Provide open access paths to a variety or reporting and development tools

Three tiers of client server systems
Three Tiers of Client/Server Systems

  • PC client workstation

    • Contains GUI presentation logic

  • Application server

    • Stores client/server applications and reports used by client

  • Database server

    • Provides data-related services, including security

Client server application system
Client/Server Application System

Application server (business process services)

Database server (data services)

Client workstation (GUI presentation services

Electronic mail
Electronic Mail

  • Critical network application

    • even grandmothers have E-mail these days...

  • Fast and convenient

    • companies see strong benefits from E-mail interaction

      • among employees

      • between employees and customers

  • Enables use of distribution lists

    • much like

  • Fault tolerance options
    Fault Tolerance Options

    • Recovery from hard disk failures

    • Recovery from lost data in a file

    • Recovery from system configuration errors

    • Protection from power outages

    • Advanced warning about system and hardware problems

    • Recovery from network connectivity failures

    Server file systems
    Server File Systems

    • File allocation table (FAT) file system

    • NT file system (NTFS)

    • NT also allows conversion of the High Performance File System (HPFS) to NTFS

      • eases transition from OS/2

    Fat file system
    FAT File System

    • Based on the use of a file allocation table, a flat table that records the blocks used to store the data contained in each file on a disk

      • blocks - units of disk storage

  • Used by several operating systems (MS-DOS, Windows 95, Windows NT)

  • Does not support advanced security and auditing

  • Advantages of fat
    Advantages of FAT

    • Simple system, supported by many small computer operating systems

    • Low operating system overhead

    • Supports partitions up to 4 GB

    Disadvantages of fat
    Disadvantages of FAT

    • Can become corrupted over time as files are spread among disjointed allocation units, and pointers to each unit are lost

    • Does not offer many file or directory security or auditing options

    • Does not support long filenames (11 character limit, “8 dot 3” convention)

    Network operating systems

    • Native Windows NT file system

    • Has a detailed directory structure

    • Supports C2 security specifications

    • Supports large disks, long filenames, and file compression

    • Keeps a log of file system activity

    • Supports Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX)

    Network operating systems

    • Used by the OS/2 operating system

    • Not supported by Windows NT 4.0

    Internet integration and electronic commerce
    Internet Integration and Electronic Commerce

    • Internet

      • Global network of diverse WWW and information servers offering voice, video, and text data to millions of users

      • Major source of commerce

    • Intranet

      • Private network within an organization

      • Restricted from public access

    Internet information server iis for nt server
    Internet Information Server (IIS) for NT Server

    • Gives organizations ability to take advantage of intranet and Internet software

    • Index Server: Built-in service which automatically indexes information created for intranet access within a company

    Chapter summary
    Chapter Summary

    • Windows NT Server is an operating system meant for networking.

      • Provides more options for network productivity and growth

      • Offers many resource options for shared folders, printers, and other resources

      • Provides network management facilities through domains and groups

      • Has built-in protection from crashes


    Chapter summary1
    Chapter Summary

    • NT Server enables scalability and distributability.

      • Gives options to scale up to larger and more powerful hardware

      • DCOM compatibility offers solid foundation for distributed application services such as client/server applications


    Chapter summary2
    Chapter Summary

    • NT Server supports FAT and NTFS.

      • Installation depends on file sizes, volume size, security needs, and purpose of server and number of users

    • NT Server offers access to and integration of Internet and intranet services through Microsoft’s Web server software, IIS, and built-in Index Server service.