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Network Operating Systems. ISQA424 Instructor: Rob Knauerhase Portland State University. Chapter 1: Networking with Microsoft Windows NT Server. Learning Objectives. Explain workgroup networking Explain domain networking and the advantages of file server operating systems

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Network operating systems

Network Operating Systems

ISQA424

Instructor: Rob Knauerhase

Portland State University



Learning objectives
Learning Objectives

  • Explain workgroup networking

  • Explain domain networking and the advantages of file server operating systems

  • Present a history of how Windows NT Server evolved

  • Describe the capabilities of Microsoft NT Server

continued


Learning objectives1
Learning Objectives

  • Compare different file systems used by Microsoft NT Server

  • Discuss how Microsoft NT Server is integrated with Internet and intranet applications


Workgroup networking
Workgroup Networking

  • Microsoft Windows NT Server is a network operating system -- software that enables computers on a network to communicate and share resources and files

  • Peer-to-peer network: A network where computers communicate with each other on an equal basis without going through an intermediary


Workgroup networking1
Workgroup Networking

  • Workstation

    • A computer that has its own CPU

    • May be used as a standalone computer for a variety of software applications

  • Workgroup: As used in Microsoft networks, a number of computers (users) who share drive and printer resources in an independent peer-to-peer relationship


A simple peer to peer workgroup
A Simple Peer-to-Peer Workgroup

Workstation

Workstation

Workstation

Workstation

Workstation


Workgroup networking2
Workgroup Networking

  • Effective for small networks or offices

  • Less effective when resource management is totally decentralized

    • Offers only moderate network security

    • No centralized storage or account management

    • No point of centralized administrative control

    • Not optimized for heavy multiple access to one computer; potential for slow response


Networking in a domain
Networking in a Domain

  • Domain: A grouping of network users and file servers to make common administrative and security management tasks more efficient

  • File server: A computer that provides files and other services to workstations.


A file server on a network
A File Server on a Network

File server with NT Server operating system

Workstation

Workstation

Cabling

Workstation

Laptop computer


Advantages of the domain model
Advantages of the Domain Model

  • All members can share computer files

  • Printers and other resources can be shared

  • Access to resources can be centrally controlled and administered

  • Members can share software applications (consistency)

continued


Advantages of the domain model1
Advantages of the Domain Model

  • All computers can be backed up from one location (easily)

  • Sharing of resources can reflect work groupings within the domain

  • Network administrator can save time when installing software upgrades

  • Detailed monitoring and analysis can be done from a central location


A history of microsoft windows nt
A History of Microsoft Windows NT

  • Work began in 1988 when Microsoft had two operating systems

    • MS-DOS (& early Windows versions)

    • OS/2 (co-developed with IBM)

  • Design focused on providing broader capabilities in areas key to business and network users

    • e.g., needed a “real” operating system

    • competitive pressure from Mac, Unix




Microsoft windows nt server capabilities

Sharing resources

Managing resources

Security

Scalability and compatibility

Reliability

Distributability

Client/server applications

Electronic mail

Fault tolerance

Microsoft Windows NT Server Capabilities


Sharing resources
Sharing Resources

  • Files needed by several people can be stored at one location

    • Mapped drive: A disk drive that is shared on the network by a file server or workstation. Also known as a drive share.

  • Data are consistent across machines

  • Many kinds of printers can be shared on a network

  • Software can be loaded or run on workstations across network (site license)


Workstations accessing a shared nt server hard drive
Workstations Accessing a Shared NT Server Hard Drive

Workstation

Windows NT Server

Shared drive

Network

Workstation


Workstations sharing one printer
Workstations Sharing One Printer

Workstation

Workstation

Workstation

Workstation

File server

Workstation

Shared printer

Workstation

Hub


Managing resources
Managing Resources

  • Centralizing management of resources allows a network administrator to simplify network management tasks

  • Network resources

    • File servers

    • Workstations

    • Shared printers

    • Shared folders


Security
Security

  • Windows NT Server has a C2 top secret security rating from the US government

    • File and folder protection

    • Account passwords

    • File, folder, and account auditing

    • File server access protection on a network

    • File server management controls

  • This is a minimum of security; by no means is it perfect.


Scalability and compatibility
Scalability and Compatibility

  • Scalability

    • Works on single-processor and multiprocessor computers

    • Handles small or large databases

  • Compatibility

    • Communicates with IBM, Novell, UNIX, Banyan, DEC, and other systems

    • Works with all (most?) PC hardware, much existing Windows software.


Reliability
Reliability

  • The NT Server operating system kernel runs in privileged mode

    • Protects operating system from problems created by malfunctioning program

    • Gives operating system an extra level of security from intruders

    • Prevents system crashes because of out-of-control applications


Reliability1
Reliability

  • NT Server takes full advantage of multitasking and multithreading capabilities of modern Pentium computers

    • Multitasking: Ability to run two or more programs at the same time

    • Multithreading: Ability to run several program processes or parts (threads) at the same time


Distributability
Distributability

  • Distributability: The process of dividing complex application program tasks among two or more computers

  • Windows NT Server handles it through the Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM)


Client server applications
Client/Server Applications

  • Began appearing in late 1980s

  • Provide more information to users than traditional mainframe (unable to meet reporting and data query needs) or file-server-based application systems (unable to handle large databases)

  • Focus on quickly bringing data to customers


Technological tools of client server applications
Technological Tools of Client/Server Applications

  • Relational databases

  • Graphical user interfaces (GUIs)

  • Powerful reporting tools

  • More powerful PC workstations

  • Networks


Relational databases
Relational Databases

  • Store large amounts of data on a server

  • Provide fast access to data for updating, querying, or reporting

  • Store data, voice, and video

  • Provide open access paths to a variety or reporting and development tools


Three tiers of client server systems
Three Tiers of Client/Server Systems

  • PC client workstation

    • Contains GUI presentation logic

  • Application server

    • Stores client/server applications and reports used by client

  • Database server

    • Provides data-related services, including security


Client server application system
Client/Server Application System

Application server (business process services)

Database server (data services)

Client workstation (GUI presentation services


Electronic mail
Electronic Mail

  • Critical network application

    • even grandmothers have E-mail these days...

  • Fast and convenient

    • companies see strong benefits from E-mail interaction

      • among employees

      • between employees and customers

  • Enables use of distribution lists

    • much like isqa424@sba.pdx.edu


  • Fault tolerance options
    Fault Tolerance Options

    • Recovery from hard disk failures

    • Recovery from lost data in a file

    • Recovery from system configuration errors

    • Protection from power outages

    • Advanced warning about system and hardware problems

    • Recovery from network connectivity failures


    Server file systems
    Server File Systems

    • File allocation table (FAT) file system

    • NT file system (NTFS)

    • NT also allows conversion of the High Performance File System (HPFS) to NTFS

      • eases transition from OS/2


    Fat file system
    FAT File System

    • Based on the use of a file allocation table, a flat table that records the blocks used to store the data contained in each file on a disk

      • blocks - units of disk storage

  • Used by several operating systems (MS-DOS, Windows 95, Windows NT)

  • Does not support advanced security and auditing


  • Advantages of fat
    Advantages of FAT

    • Simple system, supported by many small computer operating systems

    • Low operating system overhead

    • Supports partitions up to 4 GB


    Disadvantages of fat
    Disadvantages of FAT

    • Can become corrupted over time as files are spread among disjointed allocation units, and pointers to each unit are lost

    • Does not offer many file or directory security or auditing options

    • Does not support long filenames (11 character limit, “8 dot 3” convention)


    Network operating systems
    NTFS

    • Native Windows NT file system

    • Has a detailed directory structure

    • Supports C2 security specifications

    • Supports large disks, long filenames, and file compression

    • Keeps a log of file system activity

    • Supports Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX)


    Network operating systems
    HPFS

    • Used by the OS/2 operating system

    • Not supported by Windows NT 4.0




    Internet integration and electronic commerce
    Internet Integration and Electronic Commerce

    • Internet

      • Global network of diverse WWW and information servers offering voice, video, and text data to millions of users

      • Major source of commerce

    • Intranet

      • Private network within an organization

      • Restricted from public access


    Internet information server iis for nt server
    Internet Information Server (IIS) for NT Server

    • Gives organizations ability to take advantage of intranet and Internet software

    • Index Server: Built-in service which automatically indexes information created for intranet access within a company


    Chapter summary
    Chapter Summary

    • Windows NT Server is an operating system meant for networking.

      • Provides more options for network productivity and growth

      • Offers many resource options for shared folders, printers, and other resources

      • Provides network management facilities through domains and groups

      • Has built-in protection from crashes

    continued


    Chapter summary1
    Chapter Summary

    • NT Server enables scalability and distributability.

      • Gives options to scale up to larger and more powerful hardware

      • DCOM compatibility offers solid foundation for distributed application services such as client/server applications

    continued


    Chapter summary2
    Chapter Summary

    • NT Server supports FAT and NTFS.

      • Installation depends on file sizes, volume size, security needs, and purpose of server and number of users

    • NT Server offers access to and integration of Internet and intranet services through Microsoft’s Web server software, IIS, and built-in Index Server service.