Chap 23 –Nutrition, Part III (Energy Metabolism). Learning Objectives The student will be able to: Discuss the use of glucose as energy for our cells including the storage of excess glucose as either glycogen or fat. Explain metabolism.
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The student will be able to:
Discuss the use of glucose as energy for our cells including the storage of excess glucose as either glycogen or fat.
Discuss the two types of metabolic processes (anabolism and catabolism).
Describe the importance of cellular respiration (and its components such as Kreb’s cycle).
Define ATP and explain its importance as the cell’s “energy currency”.
Explain the 3 major stages involved in the processing of energy-containing nutrients in the body.
This runner has a marathon to run in 3 days.
He is eating a diet heavy in carbs (70% or more) and reducing his activity prior to the big race.
How will this make a difference or will it?
When we eat carbs they are basically converted into __________ (blood sugar) for our cells to use.
Sometimes, when we eat too much carbohydrate (more than our bodies need at the present time), the reserve is stored as either:
- ___ (*fats account for 80-85% stored energy)
- _________ (*accounts for the remaining15 – 20% and is temporarily placed in the muscles).
So, the athlete’s goal is to eat so much carb that there is excess stored as ________ in the muscle.
When exercising, ______ reserves from the muscles are burned off first. In other words, glycogen is the most readily available fuel. On average, you have to continue aerobic exercise for more than 30 minutes to touch fat reserves.
What is glucose?
Once food is digested, how do our cells ‘use’ the energy we consume from food?
Now, for the rest of the story…
Metabolic processes are either:
Example: The bonding together of amino acids to make ________
2. Catabolic - _______________
Example: Digestion of food in the GI tract
In a very simplified way we can say that…
- ________ are broken into amino acids
- _____ into glucose and other sugars
- ____ into glycerol and fatty acids
… which are taken up by the small intestine and reach tissues via the bloodstream.
torn apart (broken down) by ___________ processes into pyruvic acid and acetyl CoA
Check out “Metabolic Poisons” page 849 in the section called, “Homeostatic Imbalance”.
Named after the man who discovered it – Hans Kreb (Nobel Prize in Medicine, 1953)