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Chemistry of Life (157 – 163) 6.3 Cell Processes Active and Passive Transport, Osmosis, Diffusion, Exocytosis, and Endocytosis pp. 155 – 156; 195 -200 6.2, 8.1.

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slide1

Chemistry of Life (157 – 163)

6.3

Cell Processes

Active and Passive Transport,

Osmosis, Diffusion, Exocytosis, and Endocytosis

pp. 155 – 156; 195 -200

6.2, 8.1

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide2

Cell membranes are selectively permeable. This gives them the ability to maintain cell homeostasis by regulating what enters and leaves the cell. The direction of water movement across the cell membrane depends on the relative concentrations of free water molecules in the cytoplasm and in the fluid outside the cell. Different kinds of cells have evolved different ways of dealing with hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions. The cells of plants have rigid cell walls that keep the cells from expanding too much. Animal cells can avoid swelling by moving dissolved particles from the cytoplasm.

Most cell functions involve chemical reactions. Food molecules taken into cells react to provide the chemical constituents needed to synthesize other molecules. There are four main biochemicals: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids and Nucleic acids. Cells use carbohydrates to provide energy. Cells use proteins for cellular construction and repair, cellular chemical activities, and as a back-up energy source if carbohydrates are not available. Both breakdown and synthesis are made possible by a large set of protein catalysts, called enzymes. Cells use lipids for cell membrane construction. Cells use nucleic acids to store genetic information for protein synthesis.

  • Objective 2.0:
  • Describe cell processes necessary for achieving homeostasis, including active and passive transport, osmosis, diffusion, exocytosis, and endocytosis
  • Identifying functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in cellular activities
  • Comparing the reaction of plant and animal cells in isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions
  • Explaining how surface area, cell size, temperature, light, and pH affect cellular activities
  • Applying the concept of fluid pressure to biological systems
  • Examples: blood pressure, turgor pressure, bends, strokes
  • Vocabulary
  • Carbohydrate
  • Nucleic Acid
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Enzyme

Core concept:

Most cell functions involve chemical reactions. Food molecules taken into cells react to provide the chemical constituents needed to synthesize other molecules. There are four main biochemicals: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids and Nucleic acids. Cells use carbohydrates to provide energy. Cells use proteins for cellular construction and repair, cellular chemical activities, and as a back-up energy source if carbohydrates are not available. Both breakdown and synthesis are made possible by a large set of protein catalysts, called enzymes. Cells use lipids for cell membrane construction. Cells use nucleic acids to store genetic information for protein synthesis.

  • Vocabulary
  • Passive transport
  • Active transport
  • Endocytosis
  • Isotonic
  • Exocytosis
  • Diffusion
  • Hypotonic
  • Hypertonic
  • Homeostasis
  • Osmosis

Core concep: Cell membranes are selectively permeable. This gives them the ability to maintain cell homeostasis by regulating what enters and leaves the cell. The direction of water movement across the cell membrane depends on the relative concentrations of free water molecules in the cytoplasm and in the fluid outside the cell. Different kinds of cells have evolved different ways of dealing with hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions. The cells of plants have rigid cell walls that keep the cells from expanding too much. Animal cells can avoid swelling by moving dissolved particles from the cytoplasm.

slide3

Core Concept:

Small cells function more efficiently than large cells. Small cells can exchange substances more readily than large cells because small objects have a higher surface-area-to-volume ratio than larger objects. Most cells function best within a narrow range of light, temperature and pH. At very low temperatures, reaction rates are too slow. Extremes of light, temperature and pH can irreversibly change the structure of most protein molecules. Vocabulary: pH, surface area, volume

Turgor pressure is the main pressure of the cell contents against the cell wall in plant cells and bacteria cells, determined by the water content. Blood pressure refers to the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels. High blood pressure can cause stroke.

Breathing gas under pressure can present a myriad of possible medical problems. One of these is decompression sickness or "the bends," caused by breathing nitrogen or other gases under pressure, which are not metabolized by the body.

  • Vocabulary
  • Bends
  • Stroke

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide4

Our journey begins here, atoms like Hydrogen (H)

and Oxygen (O)

Simple to Complex

Life’s Levels of Organization

Atoms come together to make up moleculeslike water, H2O.

Molecules make up organelles.

A group of organelles make up cells.

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide5

CO2 + H2O C6 H12 O6 + 02

4. Chemical Reactions

REACTANTS

PRODUCT(S)

Sun

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

acids and bases
Acids and Bases

5. Acids are substances that forms in water and release hydrogen ions (H+).

6. Bases are substances that either take up hydrogen ions (H+) or release hydroxide ions (OH-).

7. pH measures how acidic or basic a solution is

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

ph scale
pH Scale

7. A pH scale is used to indicate how acid and basic of a solution.

8. Ranges from 0-14

  • 7 = Neutral
  • >7 = Base
  • <7 = Acid

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide9

pH Matters

A strong acid is pH of 2

pH is a measure of proton (hydrogen ion or H+) concentration .

Low pH = lots of H+s, high pH = few H+s.

In biology, keeping H+ levels within a narrow range is critically important.

A strong base is pH of 12

slide10

VIDEO FROM FILE

Diffusion

9. Diffusionis the net movement of particles from an area of higherconcentration to an area of lowerconcentration.

Diffusion continues until there is no concentration gradient!

What affects the speed of Diffusion?

10. concentration: main factor, higher the more

11. temperature: if temp. increase greater diffusion

12. pressure: increasing pressure increases diffusion

slide11

Dynamic equilibrium

no concentration gradient!

Dynamic equilibrium

osmosis
Osmosis

Hickox: Baker High School

osmosis1
Osmosis

13. Isotonic Solution - Solute and Solvent (water) concentrations both inside and outside the membrane are equal.

14. Hypotonic Solution - Solution with a lower concentration of solute than the solution on the other side of the membrane.

  • Cells placed in a hypotonic solution will swell.
    • Lysis

Hickox: Baker High School

osmosis2
Osmosis

15. Hypertonic Solution - Solution with a higher concentration of solute than the solution on the other side of the membrane.

  • Cells placed in a hypertonic solution will shrink.
    • Plasmolysis

Hickox: Baker High School

summary section 2 pages 152 156
Summary Section 2 – pages 152-156

The results of diffusion

(write into notes)

When a cell is in dynamic equilibrium with its environment, materials move into and out of the cell at equal rates. As a result, there is no net change in concentration inside or outside the cell.

Material moving out of cell equals material moving into cell

slide16

16. What type of osmosis is this?(Isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic)Does cell shrink, expand, or stay the same?

isotonic

Stays the

same

slide17

17. What type of osmosis is this?(Isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic)Does cell shrink, expand, or stay the same?

hypotonic

expands

slide18
18. What type of osmosis is this?(Isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic)Does cell shrink, expand, or stay the same?

hypertonic

shrinks

slide19

Diffusion in Living Systems: the way cells move substances in and out of the cell

Osmosis is the diffusion of particles through a semi- permeable membrane.

Hypotonic

Isotonic

Hypertonic

slide20

Review Quiz:

OSMOSIS

VIDEO FROM FILE

20. ___________is the diffusion of particles through a semi- permeable membrane.

21. __________________:movement of particles across cell membranes by diffusion or osmosis. The cell uses NO energy to move these particles

22. ________________:the transport of materials against the gradient and this takes energy

23, _________________:the pushing out of water in a plant cell against the cell wall

24. __________________:shrinking of cell due to water moving out (dissolved solution outside cell high)

25._____________:swelling of a cell due to water moving in

26. ____________:concentrations inside and outside cell is balanced.

Osmosis

Passive transport

Active transport

Turgor pressure

hypertonic

hypotonic

Isotonic

slide21

amino acids

Three views of glucose, a common simple sugar.

lipids

Biomolecule: Structures vary

RINGS

BUNCHED CHAINS

LONG CHAINS

slide22

Use these four major classes of biological molecules:

Carbohydrate, lipid, protein, nucleic acid.

Molecules of Life

How do you build a cell?

Start with water, add lots of small carbon-containing molecules and …….

slide23

Three views of glucose, a common simple sugar.

Carbohydrates

Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

27. Carbohydrates are used forenergyand to create structures.

28. The building blocks for carbohydrates are

simple sugars.

slide24

Fat

Phospholipid

30. Lipids are large and are made mostly of carbon and hydrogen and small amounts of oxygen.

Lipids are used by cells for energy storage, insulation, and protective coatings, such as in membranes.

slide26

Protein p. 66

32. Proteins are the key elements of life.

33. Proteins provide structure for tissue and organs and

carry out cell metabolism. Provide the body with the ability to move muscles. They are needed to transport oxygen in the bloodstream.

34. Enzymes, a type of protein that change the speed of chemicals reactions in the body.

section 3 check
Section 3 Check

34a. An enzyme (p. 66) is a protein that enables other molecules to undergo chemical changes to form new products. Enzymes increase the speed of reactions that would otherwise proceed too slowly.

Substrate

Active site

slide29

Nucleotides are Chains of Linked Amino Acids

DNA and RNA

35. The building blocks of proteins are amino acids!

36. There are two kinds of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. Both are involved in the storage and flow of information from gene to gene product.

slide30

39. Nucleotides Are the Monomers That Create Polymers of DNA and RNA

The small subunits that make up nucleic acids are nucleotides.

slide31

DNA

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide32

RNA

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.