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Chapter 5 Proteins and Passive and Active Transport. Rudy Chacon, Jose Vazquez, and Robert Vega . Structure of Membranes . -The layer that forms the foundations of a cell’s membrane is a bilayer formed of phospholipids. -Cellular membranes consist of four component groups

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chapter 5 proteins and passive and active transport

Chapter 5 Proteins and Passive and Active Transport

Rudy Chacon, Jose Vazquez, and Robert Vega

structure of membranes
Structure of Membranes
  • -The layer that forms the foundations of a cell’s membrane is a bilayer formed of phospholipids.
  • -Cellular membranes consist of four component groups
  • • Phospholipid bilayer
  • -Every cell membrane is composed of phospholipids in a bilayer.
  • • Transmembrane proteins
  • -A major component of every membrane is a collection of proteins that float in the lipid bilayer
  • • Interior protein network
structure of membranes cont
Structure of Membranes (cont.)
  • Membranes are structurally supported by intracellular proteins that reinforce the membrane’s shape
  • • Cell-surface markers
  • -The ER adds chains of sugar molecules to membrane proteins and lipids, converting them into glycoproteins and glycolipids
  • Phospholipids spontaneously form bilayers
  • -The phosphate groups are charged, and other molecules attached to them are polar or charged The polar water molecules repel the long, nonpolar tails of the phospholipids while seeking partners for hydrogen bonding
phospholipids
Phospholipids
  • Different components of phospholipids:-phospholipids has a backbone derived from the three-carbon polyalcohol glycerol.- A phospholipid only has two fatty acid chains attached to its backbone
phospholipids1
Phospholipids
  • Phospholipids spontaneously form bilayers-heads of the phospholipids are hydrophilic, or “water loving”-tails of the phospholipids are hydrophobic, or “water-fearing”
phospholipids2
Phospholipids
  • Phospholipid bilayer is fluid -Even though water always drives phospholipid molecules into the bilayer configuration, it does not have any effect on the mobility of phospholipids relative to their lipid and non lipid neighbors in the bilayer.-Due to phospholipids continuous interaction and unanchored proteins they are free to move within the membrane.
proteins
Proteins
  • Six Key Classes of Membrane Protein
    • Transporters
    • Enzymes
    • Cell-Surface Receptors
    • Cell-To-Cell Identity Markers
    • Cell-To-Cell Adhesion Proteins
proteins cont
Proteins (cont.)
  • Transporters
    • Membranes are very selective, allowing only certain solutes to enter or leave the cell, either through channels or carriers composed of proteins
proteins cont1
Proteins (cont.)
  • Enzymes
    • Cells carry out many chemical reactions on the interior surface of the plasma membrane, using enzymes attached to the membrane
proteins cont2
Proteins (cont.)
  • Cell-Surfaces Receptors
    • Membranes are exquisitely sensitive to chemical messages, which are detected by receptor proteins on their surfaces
proteins cont3
Proteins (cont.)
  • Cell-Surface Identity Markers
    • Membranes carry cell-surface markers that identify them to other cells. Most cell types carry their own ID tags, specific combinations of cell-surface proteins and protein combinations of cell-surface proteins and protein complexes such as glycoproteins that are characteristics of that cell.
proteins cont4
Proteins (cont.)
  • Cell-To-Cell Adhesion Proteins
    • Cells use specific proteins to glue themselves to one another. Some act by forming temporary interactions, and others form a more permanent bond.
passive and active transport
Passive and Active Transport
  • Passive Transports
    • Starts with simple diffusion
    • Cytoplasm goes through the carrier molecules
passive and active transports
Passive and Active Transports
  • Active Transport
    • The sodium-potassium pump pumps ATP thru the concentrated gradient