Evolution of Ethernet: CSMA/CD to TRILL - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

evolution of ethernet csma cd to trill n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Evolution of Ethernet: CSMA/CD to TRILL PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Evolution of Ethernet: CSMA/CD to TRILL

play fullscreen
1 / 201
Evolution of Ethernet: CSMA/CD to TRILL
99 Views
Download Presentation
keon
Download Presentation

Evolution of Ethernet: CSMA/CD to TRILL

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Evolution of Ethernet: CSMA/CD to TRILL Radia Perlman Intel Labs radia.perlman@intel.com radia@alum.mit.edu

  2. Evolution of Ethernet: CSMA/CD to TRILLAnd other Networking Topics Radia Perlman Intel Labs radia.perlman@intel.com radia@alum.mit.edu

  3. Networking is really confusing • What exactly is Ethernet? • Why do we need both Ethernet and IP? • What is this whole “layer 3 vs layer 2” thing about?

  4. Perlman’s View of Network Layers • Based on OSI layers…

  5. Perlman’s View of Network Layers • Layer 1: Physical

  6. Perlman’s View of Network Layers • Layer 1: Physical • Layer 2: Data Link: Neighbor-neighbor

  7. Perlman’s View of Network Layers • Layer 1: Physical • Layer 2: Data Link: Neighbor-neighbor • Layer 3: Network: create path, forward

  8. Perlman’s View of Network Layers • Layer 1: Physical • Layer 2: Data Link: Neighbor-neighbor • Layer 3: Network: create path, forward • Layer 4: “Transport”: end-to-end reordering, error recovery

  9. Perlman’s View of Network Layers • Layer 1: Physical • Layer 2: Data Link: Neighbor-neighbor • Layer 3: Network: create path, forward • Layer 4: “Transport”: end-to-end reordering, error recovery • Layers 5 and above:

  10. Perlman’s View of Network Layers • Layer 1: Physical • Layer 2: Data Link: Neighbor-neighbor • Layer 3: Network: create path, forward • Layer 4: “Transport”: end-to-end reordering, error recovery • Layers 5 and above: boring!

  11. Definitions • Repeater: layer 1 relay

  12. Definitions • Repeater: layer 1 relay • Bridge: layer 2 relay

  13. Definitions • Repeater: layer 1 relay • Bridge: layer 2 relay • Router: layer 3 relay

  14. Definitions • Repeater: layer 1 relay • Bridge: layer 2 relay • Router: layer 3 relay • OK: What is layer 2 vs layer 3?

  15. Definitions • Repeater: layer 1 relay • Bridge: layer 2 relay • Router: layer 3 relay • OK: What is layer 2 vs layer 3? • The “right” definition: layer 2 is neighbor-neighbor. “Relays” should only be in layer 3!

  16. Definitions • Repeater: layer 1 relay • Bridge: layer 2 relay • Router: layer 3 relay • OK: What is layer 2 vs layer 3? • True definition of a layer n protocol: Anything designed by a committee whose charter is to design a layer n protocol

  17. Things I’ll talk about • Addressing (hierarchical, flat) • Switch forwarding tables based on • Destination address • Direct lookup • Hash • Longest prefix match • Path • Creating forwarding tables (central, distributed)

  18. Address Issues • Name, ID, Address, Route

  19. Address Issues • Name, ID, Address, Route • Name: human-friendly, location-independent • ID: computer-friendly, location-independent • Address • If dest moves, address changes • But same address works from any source • Route • Dependent on location of source as well as dest!

  20. Flat vs Hierarchical Addresses • Flat: address doesn’t change when you move (so I’d call it an ID, but oh well…) • Hierarchical: something like • Planet, country, state, city • Ethernet addresses are flat, IP addresses are hierarchical

  21. So, what’s the difference between layer 2 and layer 3?

  22. Original Ethernet Invention • CSMA/CD • CS: carrier sense • Don’t interrupt if someone’s talking! • MA: multiple access • You are sharing the airwaves so be polite! • CD: collision detect • If someone else starts talking while you are talking, stop talking—people can’t listen to multiple people talking at once!

  23. CSMA/CD • Lots of papers about limited “goodput” due to collisions • Limited scalability (distance, number of stations)

  24. CSMA/CD • Lots of papers about limited “goodput” due to collisions • Limited scalability (distance, number of stations) • But Ethernet hasn’t been CSMA/CD for years!

  25. Layer 3 (e.g., IPv4, IPv6, DECnet, Appletalk, IPX, etc.) • Put source, destination, hop count on packet • Then along came “the EtherNET” • rethink routing algorithm a bit, but it’s a link not a NET! • The world got confused. Built on layer 2 • I tried to argue: “But you might want to talk from one Ethernet to another!” • “Which will win? Ethernet or DECnet?”

  26. Layer 3 packet source dest hops data Layer 3 header

  27. Ethernet packet source dest data Ethernet header

  28. Autoconfiguration • Ethernet philosophy: plug and play • Worst part of configuration: addresses • They wanted each device to have its own address • Decided on 6 byte addresses, even though the technology as originally invented was only for connecting, say, 1000 nodes

  29. Unique addresses • Two proposals • Pick an address at random • Administer them centrally (now done by IEEE) and have manufacturer created devices with permanent addresses in ROM

  30. Ethernet (802) addresses OUI • Assigned in blocks of 224 • Given 23-bit constant (OUI) plus g/i bit • all 1’s intended to mean “broadcast” group/individual global/local admin

  31. Ethernet addresses • They look hierarchical • But they are flat • The hierarchy is only for ease of assignment

  32. It’s easy to confuse “Ethernet” with “network” • Both are multiaccess clouds • But Ethernet does not scale. It can’t replace IP as the Internet Protocol • Flat addresses • No hop count • Missing additional protocols (such as neighbor discovery) • Perhaps missing features (such as fragmentation, error messages, congestion feedback)

  33. So where did Ethernet bridges come from?

  34. When I started • Layer 3 had source, destination addresses • Layer 2 was just point-to-point links (mostly)

  35. Then…Ethernet

  36. Ethernet… • Should have been called “Etherlink” • New kind of link, requiring some adjustment to the routing protocol, e.g., • Routing algorithm overhead proportional to number of links • So, for link state routing, I created “pseudonodes”

  37. Instead of: Use pseudonode

  38. Problem Statement Need something that will sit between two Ethernets, and let a station on one Ethernet talk to another A C

  39. Why routers won’t work • Router knows about one layer 3 protocol • And the endnode has to implement that!

  40. Constraint at that time for “magic box at layer 2” • Must not modify Ethernet packet in any way • Hard limit on size of packet

  41. Basic idea • Listen promiscuously • Learn location of source address based on source address in packet and port from which packet received • Forward based on learned location of destination

  42. What’s different between this and a repeater? • no collisions • with learning, can use more aggregate bandwidth than on any one link • Repeater forwards immediately…can’t look at destination address before forwarding • no artifacts of LAN technology (# of stations in ring, distance of CSMA/CD)

  43. But loops are a disaster • No hop count • Exponential proliferation S B2 B1 B3

  44. But loops are a disaster • No hop count • Exponential proliferation S B2 B1 B3

  45. But loops are a disaster • No hop count • Exponential proliferation S B2 B1 B3

  46. But loops are a disaster • No hop count • Exponential proliferation S B2 B1 B3

  47. But loops are a disaster • No hop count • Exponential proliferation S B2 B1 B3

  48. What to do about loops? • Just say “don’t do that” • Or, spanning tree algorithm • Bridges gossip amongst themselves • Compute loop-free subset • Forward data on the spanning tree • Other links are backups

  49. Algorhyme I think that I shall never seeA graph more lovely than a tree. A tree whose crucial propertyIs loop-free connectivity. A tree which must be sure to spanSo packets can reach every LAN. First the Root must be selectedBy ID it is elected. Least cost paths from Root are tracedIn the tree these paths are placed. A mesh is made by folks like me.Then bridges find a spanning tree. Radia Perlman

  50. A 11 6 X 7 9 3 2 5 10 4 14