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Geology and Nonrenewable Mineral Resources

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  1. Geology and Nonrenewable Mineral Resources G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 14th Edition Chapter 16

  2. Key Concepts • Major geologic processes • Earthquakes and volcanoes • Minerals, rocks, and the rock cycle • Finding and extracting mineral resources • Non-renewable mineral resources

  3. Geologic Processes: Structure of the Earth Fig. 4-7, p. 60

  4. Features of the Crust and Upper Mantle Fig. 16-2 p. 333

  5. Ring of Fire

  6. Prince William Sound, AK 1964 Earthquake

  7. Plate Tectonics • Divergent boundary • Convergent boundary • Subduction zone • Transform fault Various animations- search plate tectonics

  8. Divergent ( ) and transform fault ( ) boundaries Reykjanes Ridge EURASIAN PLATE EURASIAN PLATE Mid- Atlantic Ocean Ridge ANATOLIAN PLATE JUAN DE FUCA PLATE NORTH AMERICAN PLATE CARIBBEAN PLATE CHINA SUBPLATE Transform fault ARABIAN PLATE PHILIPPINE PLATE PACIFIC PLATE AFRICAN PLATE COCOS PLATE Mid- Indian Ocean Ridge Transform fault SOUTH AMERICAN PLATE Carlsberg Ridge East Pacific Rise SOMALIAN SUBPLATE INDIAN-AUSTRLIAN PLATE Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge Transform fault Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge ANTARCTIC PLATE Plate motion at convergent plate boundaries Plate motion at divergent plate boundaries Convergent plate boundaries

  9. External Earth Processes • Erosion • Mechanical weathering • Frost wedging • Chemical weathering • Biological weathering

  10. Natural Hazards: Earthquakes • Features • Magnitude- Richter Scale 1-10 • Aftershocks • Primary effects • Secondary effects Fig. 16-6 p. 337

  11. Expected Earthquake Damage No damage expected Minimal damage Canada Moderate damage Severe damage United States Fig. 16-7 p. 337

  12. Natural Hazards: Volcanic Eruptions extinct volcanoes central vent magma conduit magma reservoir Solid lithosphere Partially molten asthenosphere Upwelling magma Fig. 16-8 p. 338

  13. Minerals and Rocks A mineral is a solid formation that occurs naturally in the earth; unique chemical composition and is necessarily defined by its crystalline structure and shape. A rock is a solid combination of more than one mineral formations which is also occurring naturally. A rock can be composed of several minerals it is classified according to the process of its formation; can also contain organic remains. Minerals (diamonds, quartz) Rock Types - Igneous (granite, basalt) Sedimentary (limestone, sandstone) Metamorphic (marble, slate)

  14. Deposition Transport Erosion Sedimentary Rock Shale, Sandstone, Limestone Weathering Metamorphic Rock Slate, Quartzite, Marble Rock Cycle Heat, Pressure Heat, Pressure Igneous Rock Granite, Pumice, Basalt Magma (Molten Rock) Rock Cycle Animation

  15. Nonrenewable Mineral Resources • Metallic • Non-metallic • Energy resources- coal • Ores- type of rock that contains minerals with important elements including metals.

  16. Nonrenewable Mineral Resources: Categories Fig. 16-10 p. 340 • Identified • Undiscovered • Reserves • Other

  17. Finding Nonrenewable Mineral Resources • Satellite and air imagery • Radiation detectors • Magnetometers • Gravity differences • Seismic surveys • Chemical analyses

  18. Open-pit(surface mining) Extracting Nonrenewable Mineral Resources

  19. Dredging (surface mining)

  20. Area strip (surface mining)

  21. Contour strip (surface mining)

  22. Room-and-pillar (subsurface mining)

  23. Ventilation shaft Main shaft Lift cage Shaft Coal seams Pumps Underground Coal Mine Coal mining video (5 mins.)

  24. Longwall (subsurface mining)

  25. Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act Established 1977, mine lands must be restored to pre-mining conditions- replanting trees, adding back in soil nutrients, etc. • Taxes on mining companies to restore pre-1977 sites • Limited success

  26. Environmental Effects of Mining Mineral Resources • Disruption of land surface • Erosion of solid mining waste • Subsidence: underground mining cause cracks on surface and lowering of land • Acid mine drainage-water with high concentrations of sulfuric acid and heavy metals • Air pollution- mainly due to the emission of particulate matter, gases including methane (CH4), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Also, use of explosives releases carbon monoxide (CO) • Storage and leakage of liquid mining waste

  27. Environmental Effects of Mining Mineral Resources Fig. 16-14 p. 344

  28. More Environmental Impacts of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Surface mining Subsurface mining • Overburden • Room and pillar • Spoil • Longwall • Open-pit • Dredging Refer to Figs. 15-4 and 15-5, p. 341 and 342 • Strip mining

  29. Processing Mineral Resources • Ore mineral - A mineral from which a valuable material, usually a metal, is extracted. • Gangue- commercially worthless material that surrounds, or is closely mixed with, a wanted mineral in an ore deposit. • Tailings – crushed rock and waste left behind after mineral has been extracted. • Smelting - process of separating the metal from impurities by heating the concentrate to a high temperature to cause the metal to melt or remove impurities and produce a higher-grade metal.

  30. Smelting Separation of ore from gangue Melting metal Conversion to product Metal ore Recycling Discarding of product Surface mining Scattered in environment

  31. Supplies of Mineral Resources • Economic depletion • Depletion time • Foreign sources • Environmental concerns • Economics • New technologies • Mining the ocean Fig. 16-16 p. 346 • Finding substitutes

  32. Black smoker White smoker Sulfide deposit Tube worms Magma White crab White clam