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Cooking: PowerPoint Presentation. Carbohydrates . Definition: Carbohydrates are an ideal source of energy for the body. This is because they can be converted more readily into glucose, the form of sugar that's transported and used by the body, than proteins or fats can.

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  • Definition: Carbohydrates are an ideal source of energy for the body. This is because they can be converted more readily into glucose, the form of sugar that's transported and used by the body, than proteinsor fats can.

  • **There are two types of carbohydrate: complex and simple.**

  • Complex carbohydrates are often referred to as starch or starchy foods, they are found naturally in foods and also refined in processed foods. Some examples are: beans, brown rice, chickpeas, lentils, nuts, oats, parsnips, potatoes, root vegetables, and sweet corn are some of the foods that

  • Simple carbohydrates are also known as sugars. They exist in either a natural or refined form. Natural sugars are found in fruits and vegetables, whereas, refined sugars are found in: biscuits, cakes and pastries chocolate honey and jams jellies brown and white cane sugar pizzas


Definition: Fibre is an important component of a healthy balanced diet. We get fibre from plant-based foods, but it's not something the body can absorb.

  • Insoluble fibre contains cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. It helps your bowel to pass food by making stools soft and bulky. This type of fibre helps prevent constipation.

  • Insoluble fibre is found in the following foods:

  • beans

  • brown rice

  • fruits with edible seeds

  • lentils

  • maize

  • oats

  • pulses

  • wheat bran

  • Soluble fibre contains gums and pectin. This type of fibre lowers cholesterol levels and controls blood sugar. It can be found in all fruit and vegetables, but the following are rich sources:

  • apples

  • barley

  • citrus

  • guar gum


  • Definition: Protein is the building block of all life and is essential for the growth of cells and tissue repair.

  • Animal proteins contain all the essential amino acids. This type of protein is found in:

  • meat

  • poultry

  • fish

  • eggs

  • dairy products.

  • Plant protein contains many amino acids, but no single source contains all of the essential amino acids. This type of protein is found in:

  • legumes (peas, green beans)

  • cereals

  • beans

  • pulses

Vitamins and minerals
Vitamins and Minerals

  • Definition: Vitamins and minerals are essential for the maintenance of good health and the prevention of a number of diseases.

  • There are two types of vitamins:

  • water-soluble vitamins B and C

  • fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K.

    Water-soluble vitamins cannot be stored in the body, so you need to get them from food every day. They can be destroyed by overcooking.

  • **Vitamins and minerals are found in a wide variety of foods and a balanced diet should provide you with the quantities you need.**

Fats and cholesterol
Fats and Cholesterol

  • Fat is the most concentrated source of energy in the diet. Fat provides linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid for growth, healthy skin and metabolism.

  • Cholesterol is one of the body's fats. It is an important building block in the structure of cells and is also used in making hormones and producing energy.

  • There are two types of cholesterols:

  • high density lipoprotein (HDL) or “good” cholesterol, and

  • low density lipoprotein (LDL), or “bad cholesterol.


  • Water is perhaps the most important component of complex living organisms. It forms the basic medium in which life processes take place – from intricate biochemical reactions inside cells to the removal of waste products from the body. And even the smallest degree of water loss can impair physical and mental function.

  • Thirst is a poor measure of dehydration and many drinks are themselves dehydrating, e.g. alcohol and caffeine-containing drinks. You become dehydrated long before you feel thirsty so it's a good idea to drink water often. Still water should be your first choice, but other options are fruit teas or herbal blends, decaffeinated coffee and water flavoured with fresh fruit juice

Food additives
Food Additives

  • A food additive is any chemical substance that is added to food during preparation or storage and either becomes a part of the food or affects its characteristics for the purpose of achieving a particular technical effect.

  • Substances that are used in food to maintain its nutritive quality, enhance its keeping quality, make it attractive or to aid in its processing, packaging or storage are all considered to be food additives. However, some substances that aid in the processing of food, under certain conditions, are considered to be food processing aids, not food additives.


  • Recommended dietary allowance is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97-98% of thee population.

  • Nutrition labels are labels required on most packages foods in many countries.

Activity level
Activity Level

  • The physical activity level (PAL) is a way to express a person's daily physical activity as a number, and is used to estimate a person's total energy expenditure ( sum of internal heat produced and external work.) In combination with the basal metabolic rate (amount of daily energy expended by humans and other animals at rest) it can be used to compute the amount of food energy a person needs to consume in order to maintain a particular lifestyle. The physical activity level is defined for a non-pregnant, non-lactating adult as that person's total energy expenditure in a 24-hour period, divided by his or her basal metabolic rate. 

Cont ..

Young men (18-34 years) are more likely to play sport and be active than young women of the same age, in particular those aged 25-34 years. Activity levels are the same for men and women in the 35-49 years age band. For adults aged 50-64 years, women are more active than men (73% and 68% respectively) but the reverse is true for adults aged 65 years or over (76% of men and 66% of women are active).


  • Infants and Toddlers: Babies’ nutritional needs are met completely through mother’s milk or iron-fortified infant formula until they are about six months old. The National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the World Health Organization recommend that all infants be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life. Mother’s milk is the ideal nutrition and is quite sufficient to support growth and development during this time.

  • Preschoolers: Preschoolers need about 1, 000 to 1,400 calories per day. For this age group, roughly five or six mini-meals throughout the day are preferable to keep their energy up.

  • Elementary School Students: Complex carbohydrates and protein are particularly important for five- to eleven-year-olds, who need roughly from 1,400 to 2,000 calories a day. If they are very active, their calorie intake can be in the upper range and if they are fairly inactive, they should have a little less.

  • Middle & High school Students: Generally, teenagers need anywhere from 1,600 calories per day to 3,000 calories for very active boys. Often, teenagers need more calcium and protein than they take in.

  • Elder: For seniors, the benefits of healthy eating include increased mental acuteness, resistance to illness and disease, higher energy levels, a more robust immune system, faster recuperation times, and better management of chronic health problems. As we age, eating well can also be the key to a positive outlook and staying emotionally balanced.


  • It is the general condition of a person's mind, body and spirit, usually meaning to be free from illness, injury or pain.

  • People can improve their health via exercise, enough sleep, maintaining a healthy body weight, limiting alcohol use, and avoiding smoking. The environment is often cited as an important factor influencing the health status of individuals.


This includes characteristics of the natural environment, built environment and the social environment. Factors such as clean water and air, adequate housing, and safe communities and roads all have been found to contribute to good health, especially the health of infants and children


Genetics, or inherited traits from parents, also play a role in determining the health status of individuals and populations.