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The Mother of Invention: Involving upper elementary students in the invention process. The Mother of Invention: Involving upper elementary students in the invention process. Steve Coxon Assistant professor of gifted education and Director of gifted graduate programs at

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the mother of invention involving upper elementary students in the invention process

The Mother of Invention: Involving upper elementary students in the invention process

Steve Coxon

Assistant professor of gifted education and Director of gifted graduate programs at

Maryville Universitymaryville.edu/edgrad

stevecoxon.comcoxonsteve@hotmail.com

Lori Bland, Ph.D.

Director of Professional Development and Practice in Gifted Education

The Center for Gifted EducationatThe College of William and Marycfge.wm.edu

lcbland@wm.edu

today
Today

Participants will be engaged in the Problem-based Learning (PBL) process and employ it while receiving an overview of the unit and of the wider applicability of PBL.

slide4
Students should be given problems – at levels appropriate to their maturity – that require them to decide what evidence is relevant and to offer their own interpretations of what the evidence means. This puts a premium, just as science does, on careful observations and thoughtful analysis. Students need guidance, encouragement, and practice in collecting, sorting, and analyzing evidence, and in building arguments based on it. However, if such activities are not to be destructively boring, they must lead to some intellectually satisfying payoff that students care about.

-- from Science for All Americans, Project 2061

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary

project clarion overview
Project Clarion overview
  • Principal investigators: Joyce VanTassel-Baska, Ed.D. and Bruce Bracken, Ph.D.
  • With a federal Javits grant, eight units for primary science were created, field tested, revised, researched in classrooms, disseminated, revised, and published.
  • The units combine the Wheel of Scientific Investigation, the Frayer Model of Vocabulary, concept mapping, pre- and post-assessment, and the macro-concepts systems and change.
project clarion research overview
Project Clarion research overview
  • Researched with over 3400 K-3 students in 48 classrooms in 6 Title I schools including urban, exurban, and rural in comparison to 43 classrooms using standard curriculum (e.g., Harcourt Brace) over 3 years.
project clarion research results
Project Clarion research results
  • Gains were found for all student groups, including gifted students
  • The performance-based assessment results showed significant and educationally important gains for Clarion students in:
    • Macro-concepts
    • Scientific investigation
    • Content mastery
  • The Test of Critical Thinking showed significant and educationally important effects for the third grade students in the treatment group.
invitation to invent
Invitation to Invent
  • Concept: Systems
  • Processes: Scientific investigation

Problem-based learning (PBL)

Higher order questioning

  • Content: Simple machines; force, motion, and energy
what is pbl
What is PBL?

Problem-based learning is an instructional strategy (a curricular framework) that, through student and community interests and motivation, provides an appropriate way to “teach” sophisticated content and high-level process… all while building self-efficacy, confidence, and autonomous learner behaviors.

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009

pbl roles
PBL Roles

Teacher:

Present an ill-structured problem

Act as a metacognitive coach

Student:

Create a precise problem statement

Find information to solve the problem

Evaluate possible solutions

Create a final product

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009

history of pbl
History of PBL
  • Medical school model (Barrows)
  • Used in both elementary and secondary classrooms with gifted students
  • Adapted for use with all learners
  • Used to educate school administrators

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May

research on pbl
Research on PBL
  • Students show significant learning gains in experimental design through a PBL approach (VanTassel-Baska, et al. 2000)
  • Students show enhanced ‘real world’ skills with no loss in content knowledge as a result of using PBL (Gallagher & Stepein, 1996; Gallagher & Gallagher, 2003)
  • Students & teachers are motivated to learn using the PBL approach (VanTassel-Baska, 2000)
  • Students show enhanced higher order skill development using PBL over other approaches to teaching science (Dods,1997)

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May

features of pbl
Features of PBL
  • Learner-centered
  • Real world problem
  • Teacher as tutor or coach
  • Emphasis on collaborative teams
  • Employs metacognition
  • Uses alternative assessment
  • Embodies scientific process

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May

science curriculum framework
Science Curriculum Framework

The Problem

Concept

Process

Understanding

“Systems” or “Change”

Using and Conducting Scientific Research

Content

Learning Science

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May

problem based learning
Problem Based Learning

State the problem

Decide what information you need

Conduct information quest

Complete scientific investigations

Review data & summarize findings

Communicate problem resolution

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May

lower primary wheel of scientific investigation and reasoning
Lower Primary Wheel of Scientific Investigation and Reasoning

Make Observations

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION AND REASONING

Tell Others What Was Found

Ask

Questions

Create Meaning

Learn More

Design and Conduct the Experiment

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION AND REASONING

Javits Project Clarion, Center for Gifted Education, College of William and Mary

slide19

Wheel of

Scientific

Investigation

and Reasoning

  • Use your curiosity
  • Find something of interest to study.
  • Use your senses to learn.
  • Identify all the questions you have.
  • Select ONE question you want to answer.
  • Select an audience.
  • Decide on the best way to communicate.
  • Include data tables.
  • Report conclusions.

Make Observations

Tell Others What Was Found

Ask Questions

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION AND REASONING

  • Organize your data.
  • Analyze data.
  • Make inferences and draw conclusions.
  • Check to see if you answered your question.
  • Think of related questions.

Create Meaning

Learn More

  • Find what you need to know
  • Find what others know.
  • Learn more through observations.
  • Re-examine your question.

Design and Conduct the Experiment

  • Form a hypothesis
  • List experiment steps.
  • Identify materials you need.
  • Conduct experiment.
  • Record data.

Javits Project Clarion, Center for Gifted Education, College of William and Mary

problem statement
Problem Statement

You have been appointed the architectural engineer for a new school. Many teachers and students have suggested that cafeteria noise is a major problem in the schools, making it difficult to converse and to think while eating. You have 2 weeks to draw up plans for a cafeteria in the school that would improve on what currently exists in this school. What will you do? Pg. 68

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May

slide21

Sample questions from the lesson:

  • How is noise muffled in nature?
  • How will the Wheel of Scientific Investigation help you solve the problem? Pg. 67
slide22

Handout directions:

  • At your tables, work in groups to brainstorm examples of the problem as well as 1-3 aspects of the problem (pg. 69). Be prepared to share with the larger group.
slide23

Handout directions:

  • Having listened to multiple groups, record what you feel is the top solution (pg. 70).
  • Use the chart at the top of pg. 70 to organize your plan of action.
slide24

Handout directions:

  • Finally, restate your top solution as a testable question (bottom of pg. 70).
  • Be prepared to share.
slide25

Now that students are involved in the invention process, the unit moves on to simple machines and new possible inventions that employ them.

  • See handout 7A/7B
slide26

Students will create an invention as a final project after learning the invention process through PBL and exploring the 6 simple machines hands-on.

  • See rubric, handout 7C
pbl conclusions
PBL Conclusions:
  • engages students' curiosity and initiates learning the subject matter.
  • provides excellent opportunities for students to think critically and analytically, and to find and use appropriate learning resources
  • promotes autonomous learning

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May

slide29

Steve Coxon

Assistant professor of gifted education and Director of gifted graduate programs at

Maryville University

maryville.edu/edgrad

stevecoxon.com

coxonsteve@hotmail.com

slide30

Center for Gifted Education

http://cfge.wm.edu/

(757) 221-2362

Center for Gifted Education, The College of William and Mary, 2009