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Endocrine Organs. Intercellular communication : nervous system : neurotransmitters endocrine system : hormones : Hormone : steroids : small peptides, proteins, glycoproteins : amino acid analogues and derivatives :. Hypophysis. Adenohypophysis : pars distalis : pars intermedia :

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endocrine organs
Endocrine Organs
  • Intercellular communication :
    • nervous system : neurotransmitters
    • endocrine system : hormones :
  • Hormone :
    • steroids :
    • small peptides, proteins, glycoproteins :
    • amino acid analogues and derivatives :
hypophysis
Hypophysis
  • Adenohypophysis :
    • pars distalis :
    • pars intermedia :
    • pars tuberalis :
  • Neurohypophysis :
    • pars nervosa :
    • infundibulum :
blood supply
Blood Supply
  • Blood supply :
    • superior hypophyseal arteries :
      • pars tuberalis, median eminence, infundibular stem
    • inferior hypophyseal arteries :
      • pars nervosa
    • hypophyseal portal System : anterior lobe
      • primary capillary plexus
      • secondary capillary plexus :
adenohypophysis
Adenohypophysis
  • Tropic homones :
    • regulate activity in other endocrine glands
  • Stain reaction :
    • basophils : 10%
    • acidophils : 40%
    • chromophobes : 50%
  • Hormones :
    • small proteins or glycoproteins
hormones
Hormones
  • Andenocorticolipotropes :
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), lipotropic hormone (LPH)
  • Gonadotropes :
    • luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  • Thyrotropes : thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • Somatotropes : somatotropin
  • Lactotropes : prolactin (PR) or lactogenic hormone (LTH)
neurohypophysis
Neurohypophysis
  • Neurosecretory neuron :
    • supraoptic nuclei :
    • parventricular nuclei :
  • Storage site of neurosecretion :
    • secretory granules Herring bodies
  • Hormones :
    • vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) (ADH)
    • oxytocin
    • neurophysin : hormone-binding protein
hormone and pituicyte
Hormone and Pituicyte
  • ADH :
    • secretory neucrons : serve as osmoreceptors
    • increase permeability of distal portion of nephron
    • disease : diabetes insipidus
  • Oxytocin :
    • smooth muscle contraction :
      • uterine : copulation and parturition
      • myoepithelial cells : breast
  • Pituicyte : astrocyte
hypothalamus and pineal gland
Hypothalamus and Pineal Gland
  • Hypothalamus :
    • regulate function :
      • promote or inhibit secretion of adenohypophysis hormone
    • ADH and oxytocin production
  • Pineal gland :
    • melatonin : inhibiting steroidogenic activity of gonads
    • cell :
      • pinealocytes, interstitial (glial) cell
    • corpora arenacea (brain sand)
thyroid gland
Thyroid Gland
  • Follicle :
    • follicular (principal) cell : secrete T3,T4
      • secretory and absorptive cell : colloidal resorptive droplets
      • thyroid hormone : stimulate metabolism
    • colloid : gel-like mass
      • thyroglobulin (inactive storage form)
    • parafollicular cell : secrete calcitonin
      • calcitonin : descrease blood calcium level by suppress bone resorption and increase osteoid calcification
parathyroid glands
Parathyroid Glands
  • Embryology : third branchial pouch
  • Cell consist :
    • principal (chief) cells : secrete PTH
    • oxyphils cell :
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) :
    • function : increase blood calcium level :
      • stimulate bone resorption :
      • reduce kidney excretion of calcium :
      • increase intestinal absorption of calium :
adrenal glands
Adrenal Glands
  • Regional organization
    • Cortex : steroid-secreting portion
    • medulla : catecholamine-secreting portion
  • Blood supply :
    • capsular capillaries :
    • fenestrated cortical sinusoidal capillaries :
    • medullary arterioles :
zonation of adrenal cortex
Zonation of Adrenal Cortex
  • Zona glomerulosa :
    • mineralocorticoids : aldosterone (renin-angiotensin system)
  • Zona fasciculata :
    • glucocorticoids : hydrocortisone (cortisol)
      • gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis
    • feedback control : hypothalamic-hypophyseal CRF-ACTH system
  • Zona Reticularis :
    • weak androgens : dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA)
    • glucocorticoids : hydrocortisone (cortisol)
adrenal medulla
Adrenal Medulla
  • Chromaffin cell : modified neurons
    • norepinephrine population : large dense core granule
    • epinephrine population : small, less dense granule
    • glucocorticoid induce the conversion norepinephrine to epinephrine in medullary cells
  • catecholamine : fight-flight response
    • stimulate glycogenolysis
    • mobilization of free fatty acids from adipose tissues
    • rise blood pressure, cardiac output, increase breathing
fetal adrenal gland
Fetal Adrenal Gland
  • Outer permanent cortex :
    • thin
  • Inner fetal zone :
    • thick
    • disappearance after birth
  • Lack a definitive medulla :
  • Under CRF-ACTH feedback system :
  • Part of fetal-placental unit :