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How Did We Get Here? • William the Conqueror becomes King of England in 1066 • William held land in both France and England • Also the Duke of Normandy in France
Why War? • English kings claimed lands in France as their own fiefs • Philip VI of France said that the fiefs were his
1328 • What does this map tell us?
And the war begins… • War broke out in France in 1337
French Feudal army Relied on knights Wore heavy armor Used swords, lances, and crossbows English Lightly armored knights, foot soldiers and archers Used the longbow The French vs. The English
The English • Won most early battles • The longbow helped • Shot larger arrows that flew farther, faster, and with greater accuracy
The French • The French developed a sense of national identity. • After 1415 the French began paying common people to fight.
Joan of Arc • 17-year-old peasant girl • Claimed to hear the voices of saints urging her to save France • Led a French army to victory in the Battle of Orleans • Burned at the stake by the English after being captured for heresy
What about Feudalism? • The Hundred Years’ War shifted power from feudal lords to monarchs and common people. • Monarchs raised large professional armies. • Castles become less important as gunpowder use became more common.
Common People • Had to pay heavy taxes and often fight in the army. • Those who survived war were needed as soldiers and workers. • They emerged with greater influence and power.