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100 Years War and Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy. 8.5. Hundred Years War. Took place between 1337 and 1453 mostly in France between England and France over control of France and it’s crown. Many social changes due to the war. . The Beginning . William the Conqueror and his descendants

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hundred years war
Hundred Years War
  • Took place between 1337 and 1453 mostly in France
  • between England and France over control of France and it’s crown.
  • Many social changes due to the war.
the beginning
The Beginning
  • William the Conqueror and his descendants
  • Edward III (England) claimed French throne in 1337.

-legitimate claim from his mother, Elanor

  • Both sides want to control the English Channel and trade in the region
english early victories
English Early Victories
  • Crecy (1346)
  • Poitiers (1356)
  • Agincourt (1415)
  • What weapon helped the British win?
crecy
Crecy
  • When the war started England had population of 2 million and France 14 million.
  • Crecy (1346): major battle fought in France. English archers win.
  • French army 3x size with knights/crossbows. Longbow slaughters French.
  • 1/3 of French army dead.
  • Importance: Chivalry losing power
poiters and agincourt
Poiters and Agincourt
  • English archers again defeated a larger army
  • Flanked French and captured their king “John the Good”. Held for ransom.
  • Battle of Agincourt 1415:
    • 6,000 vs. 20,000
    • French again lose to longbows
    • Medieval knights lose more power
longbow
Longbow

Usually around 6 feet long, hard to shoot.

  • Training required, French didn’t want to train peasants, English did but were scared.
  • Distance from 180-250 yards
  • 12 arrows a minute
  • Seen as end to chivalry
charles vii
Charles VII
  • The Dauphin (uncrowned king of France)
  • 1420 the Treaty of Troyes recognized Henry V (England) as heir to the throne!
  • Who comes to the aid of Charles?
end of the war
End of the War
  • Joan of Arc leads French army to victory at Orleans and has French King crowned.
  • Joan captured by Burgundians and executed by English.
  • Last few battles of war won by French cannon breaking up English archers.
  • England only holds Calais in 1453!
  • Impact?
    • New methods of war, social changes in chivalry etc.
    • Battles between nobility and kings over control and money!
the schism and the babylonian captivity of the papacy
The Schism and The Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy
  • Division within the Roman Catholic Church
  • 1309 Pope Clement V moved the papal court to Avignon.

-lavish, expensive court

  • 1378 – rivals to the Avignon Pope choose Pope to rule in Rome. 2 Popes!
council of constance
Council of Constance
  • Germany, 1417
  • Pope Martin V moved Papal court back to Rome for good.
results
Results?
  • Church power is weakened
  • Exhibits further decline
  • What begins to happen?
  • Wycliffe – claimed Bible was source of truth, not the Church!
  • Hus and the Hussites(burned at the stake)