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Bio 345 - Animal Physiology

Bio 345 - Animal Physiology

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Bio 345 - Animal Physiology

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  1. Bio 345 - Animal Physiology Dr. Neil F. Hadley Office - DB 246 Office Hours: MW 1:30-3:00 Tel. No.: 962-7733 e-mail: hadleyn@uncwil.edu

  2. Web Stuff - How to do it You can access my web page from home at http://people.uncw.edu/hadleyn When you click on the link for the BIO 345, you will get a menu from which you can access lecture and lab syllabus Access lecture syllabus and click on Lecture link (e.g., Lecture 1new) or Click on Lecture Presentations, then specific lecture

  3. What is Physiology? “how organisms function or work” Biochemistry & Biophysics Ecology & Evolution

  4. Historical Perspective • How did we get to where we are today regarding our knowledge of physiology? • What were some of the key developments? Hindrances? • Goal = develop working plan for body

  5. Aristotle (384-322 BC) and Animal Biology • Student of Plato; teacher of Alexander the Great • Set the course for the study of animal biology • First to ask questions, seek appropriate data, provide answers

  6. For Aristotle, human physiology essentially a black box • Correct on those things he could see; speculated on possible functions from opened cadaver • Recognized major organs of the body • Believed food was transformed into blood; provided nourishment to the various parts Did not offer a working plan for the human body • Uncertain as to reason for breathing…cool the body • Thought heart was the seat of intelligence

  7. GALEN - 129 – 200 AD

  8. Galen Last of renowned Greek physicians – last notable human biologist until the 16th century Moved to Rome, became physician to the gladiators, then Emperor Marcus Aurelius Importance: not his personal discoveries, but his summation of Greek medicine from Hippocrates to his own time

  9. Galen’s Thoughts on Circulation • Blood formed in liver • Blood from liver flows to heart enroute to tissues • Blood passes back and forth through vessels • Blood seeps through intraventricular septum • Blood renewed with each beat

  10. Galen’s contributions • Produced enormous body of writings • Major contributions to anatomy which were based on dissections of small monkeys (macaque) • His description of human physiology is based on a 3-part plan: • Liver (source of veins; nourish body with blood) • Heart (source of arteries; provide “vital pneuma”) • Brain (producer of “psychic pneuma; sensations)

  11. Dark Ages Why did Galen’s view survive for 1400 yrs? • Anatomy poorly known • Anatomy known dealt with containing parts, not contents within parts • Poor communication • Absence of “controlled” experimentation

  12. William Harvey (1578-1657)

  13. William Harvey • 16th Century English physician (personal physician to King) • Well educated (Univ of Padua in Italy) • 1628 – de Motu Cordis et Sanquinis (“On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals”) • Still considered one of the most important publications in history of physiology

  14. Harvey’s Discoveries • Described muscular nature of heart • Origin of heartbeat • Basis for the “pulse” • Described pulmonary and systemic circuits (blow flow is unidirectional)

  15. Harvey’s Experiments • Stroke volume (amt of blood pumped • per unit time) • Unidirectional blood flow • Garlic Test

  16. Conclusions Missing Information – How does blood flow from arteries to veins? (Malpighi, microscope, frog lungs) First “experimental physiologist” Techniques as important as findings