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Key Concepts:. Organic compounds have carbon atoms to which hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and other atoms are attached Cells put together large biological molecules from smaller organic compounds Glucose and other simple sugars are carbohydrates. Key Concepts:.

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key concepts
Key Concepts:
  • Organic compounds have carbon atoms to which hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and other atoms are attached
  • Cells put together large biological molecules from smaller organic compounds
  • Glucose and other simple sugars are carbohydrates
key concepts2
Key Concepts:
  • Complex carbohydrates are polysaccharides
  • Lipids dissolve in nonpolar compounds
  • Lipids include neutral fats, phospholipids, waxes, and sterols
  • Cells use carbohydrates and lipids as building blocks and as their major energy source
key concepts3
Key Concepts:
  • Proteins have diverse roles forming structures, enzymes, transporters, body defenses, and help in movement
  • ATP is crucial in metabolism
  • DNA and RNA are the basis of inheritance and reproduction
properties of organic compounds
Properties of Organic Compounds
  • Molecules of “life”
    • Organic compounds
      • One or more elements covalently bonded to carbon atoms
carbon s bonding behavior
Carbon’s Bonding Behavior
  • Versatile bonding/gregarious
  • Covalent bonds
  • Stable bonds
  • Functional Groups

How Cells Build Organic Compounds

  • Five Classes of Reactions
    • Functional-group transfer
    • Electron transfer
    • Rearrangement
    • Condensation/dehydration synthesis
    • Cleavage/hydrolysis
how cells build organic compounds
How Cells Build Organic Compounds
  • Enzymes
    • Mediate different reactions
    • Speed up the rate
  • Name the two main chemical reactions that make and break organic molecules
  • What molecule is inserted/removed?
  • Why are enzymes important?
  • What are the 4 organic molecule groups?
  • Simple sugars
    • Monosaccharides
    • 6 Carbon sugars
      • Glucose
      • Fructose
      • Galactose
    • 5 Carbon sugars
      • Deoxyribose
      • Ribose
  • Short-chained Carbohydrates
    • Disaccharides
      • Sucrose
      • Lactose
      • Maltose
    • Formed by condensation reactions
  • Complex
    • Polysaccharides
      • Starch
      • Cellulose
      • Glycogen
      • Chitin







Bonding patterns between glucose monomers

in cellulose and amylose

scanning electron micrograph of a tick
Scanning Electron Micrographof a Tick

Chitin reinforced cuticle

  • Carbohydrates are made of…?
  • List several uses for carbs
  • List three levels of carbohydrate complexity
  • What are isomers…why are they important?

Water insoluble

Reservoirs of energy

Structural materials

Cell membrane

Types of Lipids

Neutral fats




fatty acids
Fatty Acids
  • In Hydrocarbons
  • Carboxyl group (- COOH)
  • Unsaturated
    • One or more double bonds
  • Saturated
    • Single bonds
  • Neutral fats
    • Three fatty acids and a glycerol
    • Condensation Reactions
    • Body’s mostabundant lipid
  • Functions
    • Energy reservoir
    • Insulation
phospholipids and sterols
Phospholipids and Sterols
  • Phospholipids
    • Incell membranes
    • Two layers of lipids
    • Glycerol backbone
    • Two fatty acids
      • Hydrophobic tail
      • Phosphate group
      • Hydrophilic head
  • Sterols
    • No fatty acid tails
    • Four carbon rings
    • In eukaryotic cell membranes
    • Cholesterol in animal tissues
      • Vitamin D
      • Steroids (hormones)
      • Bile salts
  • Long-chain fatty acids linked to alcohols or carbon rings
  • Cover plant parts
    • Help conserve water
    • Fend off parasites
  • Animals
    • Protect
    • Lubricate
    • Pliability to skin and hair
    • Repel water
  • What is a triglyceride?
  • List three kinds of lipids
  • What is meant by hydrophobic??
  • Why is the above important?
  • List three uses for lipids in biological systems
amino acids and the primary structure of proteins
Amino Acids and the Primary Structure of Proteins
  • Proteins can be used for
    • Enzymes
    • Structures
    • Transport
    • Nutritious (energy calories)
    • Hormones
    • Immune system
  • Made from a pool of 20 amino acids
structure of amino acids
Structure of Amino Acids
  • Central carbon atom
  • An amino group
  • A carboxyl group
  • A hydrogen atom
  • One or more atoms “R Group”
second level of protein structure
Second Level of Protein Structure
  • Hydrogen bonds
    • Helical coiling
    • Sheetlike pattern
third level of protein structure
Third Level of Protein Structure
  • Additional folding of secondary structure
  • R Group interactions
    • Hydrogen bonds
    • Disulfide bridges
fourth level of protein structure
Fourth Level of Protein Structure
  • Two or more polypeptide chains joined by
    • Weak bonds (Hydrogen bonds)
    • Covalent bonds between sulfur atoms and R groups
      • Collagen
      • Keratin
      • Hemoglobin
structure of hair
Structure of Hair
  • Keratin
    • Fibrous structural protein
building material
Building material
  • Protein + carbohydrate= exoskeleton
  • Chitin is almost indigestible, though
  • Waterproof and flexible
structural changes by denaturation
Structural Changes by Denaturation
  • Disruption of three-dimensional shape of protein
    • Changes in temperature and pH
    • Loss of function
  • Some proteins have organic compounds attached
    • Glycoproteins
    • Lipoproteins
  • Which protein structural level/s (1-4) is biologically active?
  • How many amino acids are there?
  • How many kinds of proteins are there?
  • Why are proteins important?
  • Can you use proteins for energy?
nucleotides and nucleic acids
Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
  • Nucleotides
    • Sugar
      • Ribose or Deoxyribose
    • Phosphate group
    • Bases
      • Single or double carbon rings with nitrogen
  • In DNA and RNA
  • ATP
  • Double strand of nucleotides
  • Twisted helically
  • Hydrogen bonds
  • Genetic information
  • Protein synthesis
    • RNA
in conclusion
In Conclusion
  • Organic compounds have elements covalently bonded to carbon atoms
  • Living cells assemble organic compounds
  • The building blocks are amino acids, nucleotides, simple sugars, and fatty acids called monomers assembled into polymers
  • Complex carbohydrates are energy storage forms and structural materials
in conclusion45
In Conclusion
  • Lipids are used as energy storage and structural components
  • Proteins are made of amino acids which form structures, enzymes, transport, movement, and are part of the immune system
  • Nucleic acids are the basis of inheritance and reproduction
  • developed by M. Roig