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art in the 1920 s
ART IN THE 1920’s

The Art Deco Movement was a representation of the rapidly modernizing world. Nonorthodox materials such as precious metals and animal skins appeared in interior design. A focus on crisp, modern, geometric forms were used in art. Styles were borrowed from other countries & periods in history, showing that society was becoming more international.

Precisionism was a highly controlled approach to technique and form. Art was based on simplified geometric shape, and clear forms.

Surrealism is all about expressing the imagination of the subconcious. Many images had the shocking strangeness that could only be found in dreams. Salvador Dali is considered to be a master of surrealism, most famous for The Persistence of Memory.

the devil s music
The Devil’s Music
  • Jazz was on the rise.
  • Soloists were also more emphasized during the period
  • Jazz Became controversial, opposing sides referred to it as the devil’s music.
  • New inventions like the phonograph and the radio allowed people to enjoy jazz or other music at home.
  • Back in the 20’s, Broadway was also at its finest. Musicals were selling out every day.
  • Broadway productions doubled in the twenties, and still hold the records for most productions at once for Broadway as a whole.
dance charleston lindy hop fox trot
Dance (Charleston, Lindy Hop, Fox-trot)
  • Lindy Hop: Known as the original Swing Dance,found in the SavoyBallroomin Harlem, NY
  • Charleston: In 1923 James P. Johnson performed this dance in Runnin' Wild
  • Fox-trot: Known as the Ballroom Dance, created in 1914 by Harry Fox, variations are the Peabody, the Quickstep, and the Roseland foxtrot
woman s rights justine tuma

Woman’s RightsJustine Tuma

The 19th Amendment in August, 1920, granted women the right to vote in all United States elections.

Feminists used radical tactics like picketing the White House, staging large suffrage marches and demonstrations to protest for woman's rights.

In 1923, feminists created the National Women's Party (NWP), headed by Alice Paul.

The NWP had a single aim: the equal rights amendment.

flapper
Flapper
  • Stereotype
  • Caused by youth wanting to be like the movie stars.
  • Took on many of their bad traits as well
    • Smoking
    • Language
    • Immorality
    • Selfishness
  • Two “kinds” as said by a Connecticut woman
  • The end of the flapper came about 1928
    • Women become more ‘proper’ acting more ladylike in her actions and speech
men s fashion in the 1920 s
Men’s Fashion in the 1920’s!
  • Men's fashion in the 1920s had a snap, sizzle and brightness that have been associated with the women's Jazz Age couture.
  • No man of any class went in public without a hat on. In the summer Panama straw hats were common and in the fall and winter, felt fedora hats were very common.
  • The leather jacket was worn by many as a fashion statement.
  • Men wore flat English driving caps and vented leather gloves when driving around the town.
  • As men's trousers grew wider, a that major change was the front crease. Cuffs were added to trousers and waist-slimming belts were becoming the popular means of holding up the trousers.
  • The baggy trousers were called "Oxford bags," because they had

originated at Oxford University.

  • A lot of men's clothing in the 1920’s

took its inspiration from what

popular athletes were wearing.

women s fashion and hairstyles
Women’s Fashion and Hairstyles

Dress fashions

  • Starting in 1916, hemlines began to rise; by the 1920’s, hemlines were calf length
  • It was popular for women to be slender, flat-chested, and tan
  • Many garments were fastened with buttons
  • Cotton and wool were popular fabrics; silk was highly desired, but very expensive
  • ‘Coco’ Chanel was a famous fashion designer whose designs were the epitome of 20’s style
  • Short hairstyles were most popular: bobbed hair, shingled hair, and the Eton crop, which shocked older citizens

Cloche hat

Hairstyles

prohibition and the 18 th amendment
Prohibition and the 18th amendment

By Travis Smith

  • The 18th Amendment banned the manufacturing of, the sale of, and the transportation of alcohol. It was put into effect on January 16, 1920 and lasted nearly 14 years.
  • The law banning alcohol was backed by many Americans at the time of its enactment.
  • Progressivists felt that alcohol caused many of the negative factors of American life, specifically criminal activity.
  • Powerful gangs formed to supply alcohol to average citizens.
  • In 1929, the stock market crashed. Many citizens needed jobs, and the government needed money. Making liquor legal again would boost taxes and increase jobs.
  • On December 5, 1933, the government ratified the 21st amendment which repealed the 18th amendment making alcohol legal again.
  • Interesting Fact: The 18th Amendment was the first amendment ever repealed.
effects of prohibition

Bryce Tendler

Speakeasies

Bars usually hidden in the basement or backroom of a business, serving alcohol.

Called speakeasies because they usually required a password you had to whisper to get inside.

Bootlegging

Rum-Running

  • Smugglers that transported alcohol across state borders.
  • Popular in Detroit, getting alcohol from Canada where it was legal.
  • The illegal production of alcohol.
  • People developed a necessity for the newly illegal alcohol.
Effects of Prohibition
organized crime gangsters mafia
Organized Crime/Gangsters/Mafia

By Tyler Slater

  • Italian mafias have been around since the mid-1800’s
  • The Mafia makes money from all major illegal activities.
  • Organized crime grew greatly because of Prohibition
  • They would constantly recruit new soldiers so rival families wouldn’t recognize them
  • The Commission stopped this by requiring them to circulate prospective member’s names.
  • Mafia Slang
    • La Cosa Nostra-American Mafia
    • Omerta-Code of Silence
    • Family-A mafia gang
    • Made Man-Someone officially in the family
  • 550 gang related killings in the 1920s in Chicago
  • Salvatore Maranzano
  • Charles “Lucky” Luciano
al capone
Al Capone
  • Immigrant in Brooklyn
  • Moved to Chicago with his gang
  • What with the new Prohibition Act, Torrio (current boss) ordered Capone to take full advantage of the opportunities.
  • Becomes mob boss in 1925 after violent death’s of two previous bosses.
  • Supposed orchestrator of the St. Valentine’s Day Massacre - was a strike against his rival gang in Chicago.
  • Many trials and one 9 mo. jail sentence for possession of a concealed deadly weapon.
  • Eventually caught for tax evasion. Sentenced to 11 years plus $272,692 in charges for court costs, fines, and back taxes. Started serving his time in Cook County Jail, moved to Alcatraz for the final 7 years of his sentence.
  • Released in 1939, ill with syphilis contracted during birth, retired to home in Florida in very poor health.
  • Died in 1947 of a stroke and pneumonia.

Al Capone

  • Immigrant in Brooklyn
  • Moved to Chicago with his gang
  • What with the new Prohibition Act, Torrio (current boss) ordered Capone to take full advantage of the opportunities.
  • Becomes mob boss in 1925 after violent death’s of two previous bosses.
  • Supposed orchestrator of the St. Valentine’s Day Massacre - was a strike against his rival gang in Chicago.
  • Many trials and one 9 mo. jail sentence for possession of a concealed deadly weapon.
  • Eventually caught for tax evasion. Sentenced to 11 years plus $272,692 in charges for court costs, fines, and back taxes. Started in Cook County Jail, ended up serving most of the time in Alcatraz.
  • Released in 1939, ill with syphilis contracted during birth, retired to home in Florida in very poor health.
  • Died in 1947 of a stroke and pneumonia.
st valentine s day massacre 1937
St. Valentine’s Day Massacre 1937

St. Valentine’s Day Massacre victims

Al Capone

In Chicago during the 1920’s was split into 2 gangs, one led by Al Capone and the other by George "Bugs" Moran. Both had tried for years to kill each other

In North Chicago, one February night, 7 members of Moran gang were found dead inside the S.M.C Cartage Co. at 2122 North Clark Street (Moran’s headquarters)

Capone tricked Moran’s gang into believing that a local booze hijacker had a shipment of whiskey for him and Moran agreed to meet him at his headquarters

4 men from Capone’s gang stole a police car and while two of them were dressed in police uniform, followed Moran’s men into the garage

They thought it was a police raid and did exactly as told: lined up, faced the wall and each received 15 bullets all to the head and the torso

Frank Gusenberg was the only surviving victim of the massacre, dieing 3 hours later refusing to say who was responsible

No one was ever tried or convicted for this murder

1919 world series

Steven Elmer

  • The Chicago White Sox were playing the Cincinnati Reds
  • They were one of the best teams in baseball, but one of the most poorly paid.
  • They made a deal with gamblers to throw the world series.
  • The eight men included the great “Shoeless Joe Jackson; pitchers Eddie Cicotte and Claude "Lefty" Williams; infielders Buck Weaver, Arnold "Chick" Gandil, Fred McMullin, and Charles "Swede" Risberg; and outfielder Oscar "Happy" Felsch.
  • Their scheme was discovered and the eight were banned from formal baseball forever.

1919 WORLD SERIES

economy in the 1920 s before the crash kayla coy

Economy in the 1920’s. Before the CrashKayla Coy

Americans had money to spend and a lot to spend it on. Companies were producing mass amounts of cars and were making many new consumer goods.

A lot of skyscrapers were being built. They had access money to build higher and higher than ever before.

The stock market was getting very high and peoples stocks would go from very very low to extremely high over night.

It became an era of easy living and easy money. Meaning that it was just as easy to get money as it was to live and they had lots of money so life was good and easy.

Famers, blue-collar workers, and blacks didn’t share the same prosperity.

Consumer spending was what pushed the economy to its highest.

The prosperity had to end sometime and this happened when the supply of consumer goods began to exceed their demand and too many purchases were being made on credit.

stock market crash 1929
Stock Market Crash (1929)
  • The The Stock Market Crash of 1929 occurred at the beginning of the Great Depression.
  • From 1920 to 1929 the stocks quadrupled in value, so many investors were certain with the stocks so they invested heavily.
  • Before the market crashed stocks were priced way higher then their true value and also they had a marginal down payment as low as 10%.
  • In 1929 the stocks burst and started decreasing quickly. The crash came on the 24th of October, but there had been miny crashes since the spring of 1929. On the 24th which people call “Black Thursday,” People watched the ticker and tried to sell as many stocks as they had. On that day 12.9 million stocks were sold, double the previous record, and 4 days later the stock market crashed again.
  • On “Black Monday” people tried to sell there stocks as the ticker showed not low numbers, but this time no one came to buy them.
  • “Black Tuesday” which is known as the worst day in stock market history. Everyone was selling and no one was buying, the stock market collapsed. The stock market closed and reopened until November 23rd when it seemed to stabilize but for about 2 years after that the stock market continued to drop.
advertisements of the 20 s

Advertisements reached millions of people due to magazine boom of the 1920’s

  • The radio airwaves also spread out the advertising news
  • Many advertisements claimed very false a wild facts (45,512 doctors)
  • Testimonial ads became very popular
  • Revolutionary ads were those that tapped into the buyers psychological state of being (Somewhere West of Laramie)

Advertisements of the 20’s

inventions and discoveries by nathan henriquez
Inventions and Discoveriesby Nathan Henriquez
  • The Assembly line changed the way products were made
  • Some other important inventions were
    • Radio/TV Transmissions
    • Traffic lights
    • Band-Aid, Hair Dryer
    • Lie Detector, Rocket
    • Penicillin, Frozen Food
    • Car with Combustion Engine

(better/cheaper than steam engine)

automobiles

By Laura Gillings

AUTOMOBILES

The first automobile was invented by Henry ford. He was the owner and founder of the Ford Motor Companies. He created the Model T car, as well as many others.

He first got the idea for a petrol driven engine from a magazine article.

With the invention of the car led to new road rules and traffic lights that were established. Dirt roads to wooden roads.

Lots of updates were established to cars as well. Like improved suspension, balloon tires, and covered cars.

Cars allowed for people to go on road trips, which took lots of careful planning. Petrol stations (gas stations) were built and they not only gave out petrol and oil but food and drinks.

Tourist parks and motels also sprang up.

Big name movie stars drove mainly the Cadillac or the Packard. Some even drove cars from Europe.

Some things that you thought were modern about cars today were actually invented in the 20’s.

Advertisements on cars were focused mainly on the consumers emotions, rather than how appealing or high tech the product was.

Colors for cars were lively.

.

inventions and discoveries in synthetics and medicine health
INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES IN SYNTHETICS AND MEDICINE/HEALTH

Health Fleming

  • Discovery of new drugs, vaccines, and antibiotics saved thousands from bacterial/viral infections
  • 1920-Herbert McLean Evans discovers Vitamin E (anti-sterility properties)
  • 1920-Elmer V. McCollum discovers Vitamin D (presence in liver, ability to prevent rickets-skeletal disorder)
  • 1928-Penicillin-rediscovered by Alexander Fleming (inhibits bacterial growth)
  • Nobel Prize in Medicine
  • 1920-August Krogh-showed that gas exchange in lungs is ordinary diffusion
  • 1923-Frederick G. Banting and John Macleod-discovered insulin

Synthetics

  • Band aids-invented by Earle Dickinson (sold the idea to Johnson and Johnson in 1924)
  • Latex-first made in 1920 in Germany from dimethyl butadiene (a gaseous hydrocarbon compound)
films of the 1920 s

Films of the 1920’s

The movies in the early 1920’s were black and white, with no sound at all.

The Most expensive movie in its time Ben-Hur was made.

First major Western called The Covered Wagon is made.

First Science fiction movie is made, called The Lost World.

First short picture with sound and dialogue was made.

First ever talkie and musical is made, called The Jazz Singer.

slide21

Radio in the 1920’s

  • As radios became easier to access at home, more and more people became interested
  • Federal regulations on airwaves started
  • Staple of entertainment in the 1920’s
  • Radios first became widespread in the 1920’s
  • It began with the first radio broadcast of KDKA in 1920
  • At first broadcasts were used for news, but it rapidly changed for entertainment purposes
  • Advertisements were added to broadcasting
  • Politicians began using the radio for campaigning

Crystal radios were the one of the first manufactured.

Roger’s Batteryless Receiver Model 130 was built in 1925

leisure activities

Leisure activities

Bowling

Billards

Card Playing

Boxing

Parties, clubs and saloons

Bicycling

Shopping

Restaurants

Theater & Opera performances

County fairs & amusement parks

Going to Parks & Zoos

fads of the 1920 s justine miller
Fads of the 1920’sJustine Miller
  • Popular Fads of the Twenties included:
  • Dance marathons- people would gather and see who could dance the longest. The longest dance on record was three weeks.
  • Flagpole Sitting- people would sit atop a flagpole and see who could sit there the longest. The longest sit on record was 49 days.
  • Mahjongg- Brought over from China, this game is a solitaire like game that was all the rage in the 1920’s
  • Crossword Puzzles- The first crossword book was published in the 1920’s and women and men alike enjoyed doing them.
slang of the 1920 s

It’s the bee’s knees!

It’s the cat’s meow!

Slang recognized people as belonging to a group. Slang helped form different cultures in the 1920’s. It let people express themselves unique and new ways. People could say a simple phrase that could mean something completely different. For example, alcohol was illegal in the1920’s so people would have slang words to use for it instead of alcohol.

Slang of the 1920’s

Bee's Knees- An extraordinary person, thing, idea; the ultimate

Big Cheese - The most important or influential person; boss. Same as big shot.

Cat's Meow - Something splendid or stylish; similar to bee's knees; The best or greatest, wonderful.

Dogs - feet

Dumb Dora - a stupid female

Flat Tire - A dull witted, insipid, disappointing date.

Flapper - A stylish, brash, hedonistic young woman with short skirts & shorter hair

Giggle Water - An intoxicating beverage; alcohol

Kisser– Mouth

Pinch - To arrest

Rag-a-muffin - a dirty or disheveled individual

Swell - Wonderful. Also: a rich man

Upchuck - To vomit when one has drunk too much

Youslayme - that's funny

By Dallin Jones

sports in 1920
Sports in 1920
  • Newspapers, magazines, radio and movies all played a role in boosting the profile of sport and the sporting giants
  • Sports grew and flourished in the nineteen twenties unprecedented publicity and promotion included:
    • Baseball
    • Tennis
    • Golf
    • Swimming
    • Football
    • Boxing
amelia earhart
Amelia Earhart
  • First woman to fly over the Atlantic Ocean solo in 1921, it took 13 and a half hours.
  • She knew she wanted to fly after taking a short flight in an airplane.
  • She broke a lot of flight speed records set by women.
  • She was a pilot for the Transcontinental Air Transport.
  • She wrote magazine articles and spoke in front of groups, she got very famous.
  • Amelia tried to fly all the way around the world but failed and no one really knows what happened.
slide27

Charles Lindbergh

International fame in 1927 as the first person to fly alone across the Atlantic

Orteig prize- Raymond Orteig offered $25,000 to first aviator to fly non stop from New York to Paris.

Persuaded 9 St. Louis businessmen to help him finance the cost of a plane

Named it Spirit of St. Louis

May 2o took off near NYC at 7:52 a.m. and landed at Le Bourget Field near Paris on May 21 at 10:21 p.m.

Flew 3,600 miles in 33.5 hours.

1927 published a book called We about his transatlantic flight

Helped lead to development of missiles, satellites and space travel

Received many honors like- medal of honor, the royal Air Cross(British) ect.

charlie chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
  • Born in 1889
  • Started working at the age of 8
  • Considered to be one of the top actors of all time
  • Acted in over 80 movies, most of which happened in 1910-1920
  • Made fun of Adolf Hitler, who was born four days after him
  • His film, the Great Dictator, was banned from Germany
  • Most of his movies were comedies, before sound, he did ‘slap stick’ comedy
harlem renaissance
Harlem Renaissance
  • 1900s, African-American middle class
  • New York City
  • W.E.B DuBois
  • NAACP
  • Marcus Garvey
  • UNIA-ACL
  • NUL
  • Music, Art, Literature
religious fundamentalism and the scopes monkey trial anna macdonald
Religious Fundamentalism and the Scopes (Monkey) TrialAnna MacDonald
  • Religious fundamentalism: A religious movement starting in the 1920s from an Evangelical church to keep conservative and anti-Darwinism ideals.
  • John T. Scopes created a lot of controversy in 1925 when he was accused of violating the state’s Butler Act (which made it illegal to teach evolution) which started the biggest trial in the country at that time, lasting one week.
  • This was called the Scopes Monkey Trial, for the evolution of man from apes. People thought that it was gross how people believed this because we are so much better than an animal.
  • Scopes was known for teaching evolution as a fact in biology.
  • The trial resulted in Scopes being guilty of violating the Butler Act.
the red scare and sacco and vanzetti
The Red Scareand Sacco and Vanzetti
  • Shortly after the Bolsheviks took over Russia, the red scare took over the U.S.
  • Michael Palmer became convinced that Communist agents were going to overthrow the American government.
  • Sacco and Vanzetti were anarchists.
  • During the Red Scare the authorities feared the workers would follow the Russian Revolution, so they arrested communists and anarchists.
  • Sacco and Vanzetti were arrested and put to death.
racism and the new kkk
Racism and the new KKK
  • Klan grew in popularity because of post-war agriculture depression, African Americans migrating into Northern cities, and a swelling of religious intolerance and favoring interests of natives over immigrants in the years after World War I
  • In the 1920s Edward Clarke & Bessie Tylerthe formed Southern Publicity Association with 3 million members
  • By 1924, the KKK claimed to control 24 of the nation's 48 state legislatures
  • Targets of the Klan's fear-mongeringwere Roman Catholics, Jews, African Americans, foreigners, Bootleggers (people who illegally made, imported, or sold alcohol), and divorcees
  • Robert O. Paxton (wrote an essay on 5 stages of fascisms) considers the KKK the first Klan "the earliest phenomenon that seems functionally related to fascism.”
f scott fitzgerald
F. Scott Fitzgerald
  • Born St. Paul, Minnesota September 24, 1896
  • Wife was Zelda Sayre
  • Had a child Scottie Fitzgerald
  • Writing at an early age
  • Suffered a heart attack December 21 1940 age 44
  • Birth name Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald
  • One of the best American Authors of the 1920s and 30s