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Aerodynamics 1: Energy Conversion. References: NREL (Pat Moriarty, Tony Jimenez). Wind Turbine Components. Courtesy: Alternative Energy Institute. Energy and Power. Energy is the ability to do work Energy = Force * Distance Electrical energy usually measured in kWh Power = Energy / Time

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aerodynamics 1 energy conversion

Aerodynamics 1: Energy Conversion

References:

NREL (Pat Moriarty, Tony Jimenez)

wind turbine components
Wind Turbine Components

Courtesy: Alternative Energy Institute

Wind Energy

energy and power
Energy and Power
  • Energy is the ability to do work
  • Energy = Force * Distance
  • Electrical energy usually measured in kWh
  • Power = Energy / Time
  • Electrical power usually measured in kW

Wind Energy

kinetic energy
Kinetic Energy
  • Kinetic energy (KE) is the energy of motion
  • Air molecules have mass, and wind is moving air. Thus, wind has kinetic energy.
  • Wind turbines convert the wind’s kinetic energy into mechanical kinetic energy (spinning the rotor).
  • Mass = density * volume:
  • What is the kinetic energy of a 1m cube of air moving at 5 m/s in Colorado (r = 1 kg/m3)?

Wind Energy

energy conservation and energy conversion
Energy Conservation and Energy Conversion
  • When the turbine extracts kinetic energy from the wind, the speed of the wind is reduced.
  • Some of the wind’s kinetic energy is converted into mechanical kinetic energy, i.e., the rotation of the turbine rotor.
  • Some of the wind’s kinetic energy remains in the wind (conservation of energy).
  • What would happen if all of the wind’s kinetic energy were converted?

Wind Energy

power
Power
  • Power available in the wind
    • r = air density
    • v = wind speed
    • A = cross sectional area swept by rotor (“swept area”)

Wind Energy

energy and power ii
Energy and Power – II
  • Consider the units of the kinetic energy equation:and the units of the power equation:
  • Recall: Power = (Energy) / (Time) and Mass = (Density)*(Volume)

Wind Energy

power coefficient
Power Coefficient
  • Power coefficient Cp is a measure of the aerodynamic efficiency of the wind turbine
    • Q = turbine’s aerodynamic torque
    • W = rotor rotational speed
    • Betz limit - theoretical maximum

Wind Energy

tip speed ratio
Tip-Speed Ratio
  • Ratio of the linear speed of the tip of the blade to the wind speed
  • Linear speed of a rotating object is angular speed times distance from center of rotation
    • l = tip-speed ratio
    • R = rotor radius
    • w = angular speed
    • v = wind speed
  • What is the tip-speed ratio of a 20 m diameter rotor rotating at 6 rad/s in 10 m/s wind?

Wind Energy