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Student facilitation and predictors of engagement in peer-led literature circle discussions. Chase J. Young. What do teacher want to know about literature circles. We want to know that Literature Circles are authentic, high-level, and effective. VIDEO – Reading Circles

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student facilitation and predictors of engagement in peer led literature circle discussions

Student facilitation and predictors of engagement in peer-led literature circle discussions

Chase J. Young

what do teacher want to know about literature circles
What do teacher want to know about literature circles
  • We want to know that Literature Circles are authentic, high-level, and effective.
  • VIDEO – Reading Circles
  • VIDEO - Example Literature Circles in 3rd Grade
  • Discuss: If your literature circles are working, then rejoice!
what do teacher want to know about literature circles1
What do teacher want to know about literature circles?
  • We want to know that LCs are authentic.
  • Free flowing discussions
  • Choice
    • Text
    • Topic
  • VIDEO - Fourth Grade Literature Circles
  • Discuss: texts and topics
what do teacher want to know about literature circles2
What do teacher want to know about literature circles?
  • We want to know that students are thinking on high levels.
  • Assessing Discourse
    • High-level Talk (Rubric)
    • Comprehension (Response)
  • VIDEO - Snyderites Practice Literature Circles (Reflect)
  • Facilitation
    • A long interesting journey…
theoretical consideration
Theoretical Consideration
  • Scaffolding
    • Not adding support, but carefully removing support to foster independence
    • Students in LCs should be closer to independence
methodology
Methodology
  • Tharp and Gallimore (1988) deemed insufficient and felt forced on the data
    • Modeling – What is it in the context of peer-led LCs?
    • Contingency Managing – Should students be responsible for this?
    • Feedback – Does all feedback facilitate discussion?
    • Questioning – Do all questions instigate deeper level discussions?
    • Cognitive Structuring – Should this definition include how the brain changes?
    • Instructing – Is this the job of the students?
methodology1
Methodology
  • Li et al. (2007) deemed insufficient and felt forced
    • Planning and Organizing – Should this be done by the teacher prior to LCs?
    • Topic Control – How do students control the topic?
    • Acknowledgement – Is mere acknowledgement beneficial in LCs?
    • Argument Development – Development assumes a thread of discourse rather than an utterance
    • Turn Management – Does this inhibit free-flowing discussions?
flow of coding facilitative functions
FLOW OF CODING Facilitative Functions

LI ET AL. (2007)

  • Planning and Organizing – Eliminated
  • Topic Control – Renamed Topic Management if facilitative (exploratory talk or confessional)
  • Acknowledgement – Eliminated
  • Argument Development – Eliminated
  • Turn Management – Eliminated

THARP AND GALLIMORE

  • Modeling – Eliminated
  • Contingency Managing – Eliminated
  • Feedback – Included only if elaborative
  • Questioning – Included in Exploratory Talk if high-level
  • Cognitive Structuring – Eliminated
  • Instructing – Eliminated
flow of coding facilitative functions1
FLOW OF CODING Facilitative Functions
  • Non-Facilitative
    • Feedback
    • Unrelated
  • Deemed Facilitative
    • Exploratory Talk (CC)
    • Elaborative Feedback (CC)
    • Topic Management (CC)
    • Confessionals (Open)
    • Accountability (Open)
qualitative results
Qualitative Results

The researcher observed students facilitating discussions in five ways:

  • Exploratory Talk
    • Asking questions that are open ended that expect high-level responses and statements that allow for debate
  • Elaborative Feedback
    • Agreeing or disagreeing and providing reasoning or text evidence
  • Topic Management
    • Introducing important topics and big ideas as well as changing topic through facilitation
  • Confessionals
    • Admitting when meaning breaks down and asking for help from group members
  • Accountability
    • Making sure all group members participate and back up their contributions and questions with text-evidence
what do teacher want to know about literature circles3
What do teacher want to know about literature circles?
  • We want to know that LCs are effective.
  • Text Selection (3rd Grade Regression –Reading Ability)
  • Group Size
    • Post Hoc Regression (4th Grade – Groups of 3 -66%)
  • Personality (TIPI)
    • Regression 3rd Grade (Extroversion and Lack of Contentiousness)
    • Regression 4th Grade (Emotional Stability)
      • Reading ability wanes
what do teacher want to know about literature circles4
What do teacher want to know about literature circles?
  • How do we implement literature circles?
  • Prepare: Quality literature, small groups, and intentional placement of personalities
  • Teach: High-level discussion techniques and facilitative functions
promoting high level discussion
Promoting High-Level Discussion
  • Input
    • Name, Recall, Restate, Reread, Locate, Describe, State, Inform, Define, Identify, List
  • Process
    • Compare, Contrast, Classify, Distinguish, Explain (Why), Infer, Sequence, Analyze, Synthesize, Make Analogies, Reason
  • Output
    • Evaluate, Generalize, Imagine, Judge, Predict, Speculate, If/Then, Apply a Principle, Hypothesize, Forecast, Idealize
promoting high level discussion1
Promoting High-Level Discussion
  • I wonder, I realized, I can connect with, This is giving me the idea that, I think, I disagree with...because…, I wish, I hope, I know, I predict, I think the main idea is, I think the main idea of the chapter is, There is one thing I do not like, and it is, The author should have, I think ____ is like ____ because, This connects with, (Name) helped me understand, I partly agree with , At first I thought...now I think...because…, I agree with (Name) because…, My favorite part was…because, I don’t know why, I liked…because…, I think the author’s purpose is, I was surprised, I was confused, I used context clues, I do not get…, What if…, Why…, How do you know?, What do you mean?, Can you repeat that?, How did…?, Do you think…?
  • Teach facilitation.
further research
Further Research
  • Teaching Facilitative Functions to improve student discourse
  • Facilitative Function Order of Importance
  • Benefits of LCs on higher and lower readers
  • Personality’s impact on LC discussions
  • Personality’s impact on LC discussions across grade levels
  • Group size and quality of LC discussions
  • Measuring comprehension on the go