objective bt11 02 analyze transgenic animals n.
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Objective BT11.02: Analyze transgenic animals. PowerPoint Presentation
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Objective BT11.02: Analyze transgenic animals. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Objective BT11.02: Analyze transgenic animals.
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  1. Objective BT11.02: Analyze transgenic animals.

  2. Early beginnings • Biotechnology – collection of scientific techniques that use living cells and molecules to make products and solve problems • Transgenic organisms = Organisms that contain another species’ genes within their chromosomes

  3. Historically • Biotechnology has been used in selective breeding of livestock, controlled plant pollination, and microorganisms to bake bread, brew beer and make cheese • Using microorganisms to make cheese is an early historical example of biotechnology ***

  4. Transgenic organisms • This is accomplished by transferring specific genes from one species to another • The first transgenic organisms were bacteria created in a laboratory*** • Pharmaceutical companies use bacteria to produce insulin in the laboratory***

  5. Scientists around the world use customized transgenic animals for their own research • Transgenic models are an established part of biomedical research*** • Species include sheep, goats, cows, pigs, mice, rabbits, rats, chickens and fish

  6. Benefits of transgenic animals • Animal models • Pharmaceutical production • Organ donors • Livestock improvement

  7. Production of transgenic animals • The transgene (which contains the DNA the scientist wants to transfer) is introduced into a single-cell embryo*** • The embryo is transferred to a surrogate mother of the same strain • Success rate is low (10%-30%) in mice • Success rate decreases in mammals • Pharming: Using transgenic animals to produce substances***

  8. Care of transgenic animals • Most do not require special care • Some develop a susceptibility to disease

  9. Government’s role in transgenic research • U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issues patents for transgenic animals • Biomedical researchers must apply for a patent from the US Patent and Trademark office when they want to create a transgenic animal*** • Only government policy specifically addressing the issue is the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules

  10. Ethical considerations • People opposed to transgenic animal research believe that transgenic animals threaten our environment, health and food safety***

  11. Positives of transgenic models: • Provide a new way to study diseases • Vital substances needed by the human body may soon be available • May provide a new source of organs • May one day be used to treat human diseases

  12. Future of transgenic animals • Current research limited to transferring a small amount of genes at a time • Much work remains to be done to fine-tune techniques • Possible effects of foreign DNA remains a concern