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  1. Children's perspectives of well-being in English and New Zealand primary schools Anne Kellock Sheffield Hallam University a.kellock@shu.ac.uk 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Child Indicators University of York 27-29 July 2011

  2. About the research • Methodological approach • Methods • Data themes • Stories of change • Making sense of it all • Model of understanding well-being Introduction Clare (8): This is where we go to talk in the playground 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Child Indicators University of York 27-29 July 2011

  3. As part of a funded PhD research project • Background – primary school teacher, psychology and counselling, interest in visual arts and well-being • Context - schools in UK and New Zealand, focus on 8-10 year old children to access their views on their own well-being About the research 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Child Indicators University of York 27-29 July 2011

  4. Children as experts (Christensen and Prout, 2002) • Children as researchers(Kellett, 2008) • Visual communicating(Reavey and Johnson, 2008) • Photography as accessible (Rose, 2007) • Participatory Action Research(Kagan, Burton and Siddiquee, 2008, Reason, 1988) • Indigenous Methodology (Tuhiwai Smith, 1999) • Working with children (Banister and Booth, 2005; Mayall, 2000; Sixsmith, Duckett and Kagan, 2005) Methodological Approach 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Child Indicators University of York 27-29 July 2011

  5. Tour of the School • Photo Art • Feelings Dictionaries • Facial Expression Chart • Storyboards • Identity Work • Reflections James (10) Feeling Dictionary Methods 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Child Indicators University of York 27-29 July 2011

  6. 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Child Indicators University of York 27-29 July 2011

  7. People (including friendship) • Place and environment • Being physically active • Being creative • Play • Learning • Autonomy and choice • Rules • Needs Angel (10): My brother Data 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Child Indicators University of York 27-29 July 2011

  8. increased enhanced self-expression through visual communication • enhanced visual literacy • calmer and more focused in small group settings • increased empathetic skills • increased self-confidence • increased contributions in school • positive feelings from being heard • more confident to take on challenges and appearing ‘happier’ Megan (8): Teddy is special to me. Stories of Change...

  9. Children’s themes • Community Psychology • Sen’s Capability Approach Making sense of it all 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Child Indicators University of York 27-29 July 2011

  10. Understanding and helping people in their natural and social settings (Orford, 1992) • Comprehending the “whole” child in context (Pooley et al, 2002:p.6) • Children can be understood as “… community beings …” or “… active social agents …” (James and Prout, 1997:p.18) • Belonging to a community can provide a sense of emotional safety, sense of belonging and identity, as well as offering boundaries (Pooley et al, 2002: pp.8) • Social connectedness as being “one of the most powerful determinants of our well-being” (Putnam, 2000: pp.326) • Bronfenbrenner (1979) systems theory and Bird and Drewery (2000) Interconnected Diagram • In this study: key points – children as network members, learning environment, social skills development Community Psychology 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Child Indicators University of York 27-29 July 2011

  11. Sen (1999): Development as Freedom • Capabilities are a person’s ability to lead a life they have reason to value (Robeyns, 2003 and Sen, 1999) • Functioning is the actual achievement stemming from capability, thus the difference lies between the potential and the outcome (Walker and Unterhalter, 2007) • Capabilities in this study: Being a learner, being physically active, being creative, being social • Resources, positive functions and potential barriers Sen’s Capability Approach 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Child Indicators University of York 27-29 July 2011

  12. Model of understanding well-being 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Child Indicators University of York 27-29 July 2011

  13. Thank you. Conclusions and questions 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Child Indicators University of York 27-29 July 2011

  14. Banister, E. and Booth, G.J. (2005) Exploring innovative methodologies for child-centric consumer research Qualitative Market Research 8: 2 pp.157-175 • Bird, L. and Drewery, W. (2000) Human Development in Aotearoa: A Journey Through Life Auckland: McGraw-Hill Book Company New Zealand Limited • Bronfenbrenner, U. (1989) Ecological systems theory Annual Child Development 6 pp. 187-249. • Christensen, P., and Prout, A. (2002) Working with ethical symmetry in social research with children Childhood 9: 4 pp.477-497. • James, A. and Prout, A. (Eds) (1997) Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood London: Falmer Press • Kagan, C., Burton, M. and Siddiquee, A. (2008) Action Research in C. Willig and W. Stainton-Rogers (Eds) The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research in Psychology London: Sage Publications Ltd pp.32-53 • Kellett, M. (2008) Children as active researchers: a new research paradigm for the 21st century? ESRC National Centre for Research Methods, Review Paper • Mayall, B. (2000) Conversations with Children: Working with Generational Issues in P. Christensen and A. James (Eds) Research with Children: Perspectives and Practices Falmer Press: London • Orford, J. (1992) Community Psychology: Theory and Practice Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd • Pooley, J.A., Pike, L.T., Drew, N.M. & Breen, L. (2002) Inferring Australian children’s sense of community: a critical exploration Community, Work & Family 5: 1 pp.5-22. • Putnam, R.D. (2000) Bowling Alone New York: Simon and Schuster • Reavey, P. and Johnson, K. (2008) Visual Approaches: Using and Interpreting Images in C. Willig and W. Stainton-Rogers (Eds) The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research in Psychology London: Sage Publications Ltd. pp.296-314. • Robeyns, I. (2003) Sen’sCapability Approach and Gender Inequality: Selecting relevant capabilities Feminist Economics 9:2 pp.62-91. • Rose, G. (2007) Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials London: Sage Publications Ltd • Sen, A.K. (1999) Development as Freedom Oxford: Oxford University Press • Sixsmith, J., Duckett, P. and Kagan, C. (2004) “I leave me outside when I come in school and pick myself back up on the way home.” Young people’s perspectives on healthy schools Open Space-Open People 2004 Conference: Edinburgh • Tuhiwai Smith, L. (1999) Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples New York: Zen Books Ltd • Walker, M. and Unterhalter, E. (2007) The Capability Approach: Its Potential for Work in Education in M. Walker and E. Unterhalter (Eds) AmartyaSen‟s Capability Approach and Social Justice in Education New York: Palgrave Macmillan pp.1-18. References 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Child Indicators University of York 27-29 July 2011