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Chapter 6 Civil War and Reconstruction

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Chapter 6 Civil War and Reconstruction. # 3 Reconstruction. Essential Question : What were the various plans to reconstruct the Union at the end of the Civil War? Warm-Up Question: What problems exist now that the Civil War is over?. Reconstruction ( 1865 to 1877) .

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Presentation Transcript
Essential Question:
    • What were the various plans to reconstruct the Union at the end of the Civil War?
  • Warm-Up Question:
    • What problems exist now that the Civil War is over?
reconstruction 1865 to 1877
Reconstruction (1865 to 1877)
  • Reconstruction is the era after the Civil War when the U.S. gov’t:
    • Brought the seceded Southern states back into the Union
    • Ended slavery & tried to protect newly emancipated slaves
    • Rebuilt the nation after more than four years of fighting
reconstruction 1865 1877
Reconstruction: 1865-1877
  • Reconstruction occurred in 2 phases:
    • Presidential Reconstruction (1865-67) was lenient in order to allow Southern states to quickly rejoin the Union; It was initiated by President Lincoln but carried out by President Andrew Johnson
reconstruction 1865 18771
Reconstruction: 1865-1877
  • Reconstruction occurred in 2 phases:
    • Congressional Reconstruction (1867-77) was directed by Radical Republicans in Congress who wanted a stricter plan that protected the rights of former slaves & kept Confederate leaders from regaining power in the South
lincoln s reconstruction plan
Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan

In his 2nd inaugural address, Lincoln promised a Reconstruction Plan for the Union with “malice towards none & charity for all”

  • Before the Civil War came to an end (& before his death), Lincoln proposed his Ten-Percent Plan
  • This plan was very lenient & allowed former Confederate states could re-enter the Union when:
    • 10% of its population swore an oath of loyalty to the USA
    • States ratified the 13th Amendment ending slavery
lincoln s reconstruction plan1
Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan
  • Radical Republicans in Congress rejected Lincoln’s plan because:
    • It did nothing to protect ex-slaves or to keep Confederate leaders from regaining power in the South
    • Wanted 50% of state populations to swear an oath of loyalty
  • When the Civil War ended & Lincoln was assassinated in 1865, there was no Reconstruction Plan in place
presidential reconstruction
Presidential Reconstruction
  • When Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 VP Andrew Johnson tried to continue Lincoln’s policies:
    • His Presidential Reconstruction plan was lenient towards Southerners
    • States could come back into the USA once they ratified the 13th Amendment
presidential reconstruction1
Presidential Reconstruction
  • Johnson’s Reconstruction plan hoped to quickly re-unify the nation
  • But, this plan did not require strict regulations to protect former slaves
    • Southern states passed black codes to keep African-Americans from gaining land, jobs, voting rights, & protection under the law
    • Johnson pardoned 13,000 ex-Confederates
presidential reconstruction2
Presidential Reconstruction
  • Led by Thaddeus Stevens, many “radical” Republicans in Congress opposed Johnson’s plan & pushed for laws to protect African-Americans:
    • Created the Freedman’s Bureau
    • Pushed for the 14th Amendment
the freedman s bureau
The Freedman’s Bureau
  • The Freedman’s Bureau was established in 1865 to offer assistance to former slaves & protect their new citizenship:
    • Provided emergency food, housing, medical supplies
    • Promised “40 acres & a mule”
    • Supervised labor contracts
    • Created new schools
the role of freedman s bureau agents
The Role of Freedman’s Bureau Agents

Many former abolitionists moved South to help freedmen, called “carpetbaggers” by Southern Democrats

historically black colleges in the south
Historically Black Colleges in the South

The emphasis on education led to the creation of black universities, such as Morehouse College in Atlanta

the 14 th amendment
The 14th Amendment
  • Congress feared Johnson would allow violations of civil rights so it drafted the 14th Amendment:
    • Clarified the idea of citizenship to include former slaves
    • All citizens were entitled to equal protection under the law & cannot bedeprived of life, liberty, property without due process of law
    • Tennessee was the only Southern state to accept the amendment
presidential reconstruction3
Presidential Reconstruction
  • President Johnson opposed these new protections because he felt it would slow reconstruction:
    • Johnson vetoed the Freedman’s Bureau bill & encouraged Southern states to not support the 14th Amendment
    • This backfired when Republicans increased their control of Congress in the 1866 elections
With a dominance in Congress, moderate & “radical” Republicans took control & began “Congressional Reconstruction” in 1867:
    • Did not recognize the state gov’ts approved under Johnson’s Plan
    • Made Reconstruction more strict
congressional reconstruction
Congressional Reconstruction
  • The Reconstruction Act of 1867 required that any Confederate state that wanted to re-enter the Union had to:
    • Ratify the 14th Amendment
    • Allow African-American men the right to vote in their states
    • Keep Confederate leaders from returning to power
johnson s impeachment 1868
Johnson’s Impeachment (1868)
  • President Johnson obstructed Congressional Reconstruction:
    • He fired military generals appointed by Congress to oversee Southern military zones
    • He violated a new law called the Tenure of Office Act when he tried to fire his Secretary of War who supported Congress’ plan
Radical Republicans used this as an opportunity to impeach the president
    • To impeach is to formally charge an elected official of wrongdoing
    • The House of Representatives voted 126-47 to impeach Johnson
after an 11 week trial the senate fell 1 vote short of removing the president from office
After an 11 week trial, the Senate fell 1 vote short of removing the president from office

Johnson argued that removal could only occur due to “high crimes & misdemeanors” but no “crime” had been committed

But…Johnson did promise to enforce Reconstruction for the remainder of his term…& he did!

In 1868, Civil War hero Ulysses Grant won the presidency & worked with Congress to reconstruct the South:
    • By 1868, most Confederate states had been re-admitted to the Union under Congressional Reconstruction
    • Under Grant, the last would re-enter
Because of Congressional Reconstruction, African-American men in the South could vote for the first time
In 1870, the 15th Amendment gave black men the right to vote
    • Prohibited any state from denying men the right to vote due to race
    • But…the amendment said nothing about literacy tests, poll taxes, & property qualifications
  • As a result of Congressional Reconstruction (1867-1877):
    • All eleven Southern states were re-admitted into the Union
    • The 13th, 14th, & 15th Amendments provided protection & opportunity for African-Americans in the South
    • But, this was difficult to enforce & sustain as Democrats slowly took back control of Southern states