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Chapter 4 Civil War and Reconstruction

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    1. Chapter 4 Civil War and Reconstruction Lesson 1 The States at War

    3. Lets Define Emancipation: Freeing of enslaved people

    4. Lets Define Civilian A person who is not in the military

    5. Lets Define Telegraph A machine that sends electric signals over wires.

    6. Lets Define Sharecropping A system that allowed poor farmers to use a landowners fields. In return, the poor farmer gave the landowner a share of the crop.

    7. Lets Define Boarder States Slave states that remained part of the Union during the Civil War.

    8. Lets Define Casualties People who are killed, wounded, captured, or missing during a military action.

    9. Lets Define Draft Forced enrollment in the armed forces.

    10. Build on What You Know Have you ever started a task that was harder than it seemed at first? At the start of the Civil War, both sides thought they could win quickly. Soon, they knew that winning would be far from easy.

    11. North Against South Main Idea: The Union and the Confederacy had different strengths.

    12. Union Strengths: More people (22 million lived in the North, compared to 9 million who lived in the South). More factories for making weapons and supplies More Railroad lines (Soldiers and supplies could move quickly).

    13. Confederate Strengths Most of the fighting took place in the South, so Confederate soldiers were defending land they knew. Excellent military leaders such as General Robert E. Lee.

    14. Plans for War Union Strategy to win the war: The navy would block southern seaports so the Confederacy could not trade with other countries. The navy would also take control of the Mississippi River. The Union army would attack in the East and West at the same time.

    15. The Anaconda Plan The Unions plan to block Confederate ports and attack by land was called the Anaconda Plan, Named after a snake that squeezes its prey.

    16. Plans for War Confederate strategy to win the war: Fight off northern attacks until they could survive as a separate nation. Enlist help from Britain and France because those countries needed southern cotton. Win a lot of battles so the Union army would get discouraged and give up.

    17. Review What advantages did the Union army have over the Confederate army? Cmon, you know this!!!

    18. Answer More people (22 million lived in the North, compared to 9 million who lived in the South. More factories for making weapons and supplies More Railroad lines (Soldiers and supplies could move quickly).

    19. Review What advantages did the Confederate army have over the Union army? Cmon, you know this too!!

    20. Answer Most of the fighting took place in the South, so Confederate soldiers were defending land they knew. Excellent military leaders such as General Robert E. Lee.

    21. Review Name the strategies the Union army planned to use to win the war

    22. Answer The navy would block southern seaports so the Confederacy could not trade with other countries. The navy would also take control of the Mississippi River. The Union army would attack in the East and West at the same time. The Anaconda Plan

    23. Review Name the strategies the Confederate army planned to use to win the war

    24. Answer Fight off northern attacks until they could survive as a separate nation. Enlist help from Britain and France because those countries needed southern cotton. Win a lot of battles so the Union army would get discouraged and give up.

    25. What Both Sided Expected At the start of the war, both sides expected a quick and easy victory. Thousands of men from the North and South joined the Union and Confederate armies. So many men volunteered from Tennessee that the state became known as the Volunteer State

    26. The First Battle of Bull Run 1861 (The war in the East) In July 1861, a Union army marched south from Washington. (Remembermost of the battles were fought on southern land.) Its goal was to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, VA., about 100 miles away. The two armies fought at a stream called Bull Run, near the town of Manassas.

    27. First Battle of Bull Run 1861 Both sides fought all day. At the end of the battle, called the First Battle of Bull Run, the Union army retreated in a panic. The battle was worse than expected! People began to realize that the war would not end soon.

    28. The Wars Leaders Main Idea: Military and political leaders played important roles during the war. Ulysses S. Grant: Union General Robert E. Lee: Confederate General Abraham Lincoln: President of the U.S. Jefferson Davis: President of the Confederate States of America

    29. The Generals: Union General: Ulysses S. Grant Confederate General: Robert E. Lee One way to keep the Generals straight is to remember the Confederate soldiers called Ulysses S. Grant Useless S. Grant

    30. 1862 General Robert E. Lee took command of the Confederate army in Virginia. That year, the Union tried twice more to attack Richmond. Lee defeated his enemies BOTH times! After these victories, Lee decided to invade the North. (After his 2 victories, Lee was feeling pretty confidentbut should he?)

    31. 1862 General Robert E. Lee led his soldiers into Maryland. The Union army stopped him at the Battle of Antietam (an TEE tam). It was the DEADLIEST day of the war!

    32. 1862 Both armies suffered at least 23,000 casualties! Lees losses were so high that he returned to Virginia.

    33. Battle of Antietam September 17, 1862 6 a.m.- 9a.m. Confederate soldiers fight off three powerful Union attacks near Dunker Church. 9 a.m. 1 p.m. Union attacks on the Sunken Road force Confederate soldiers to retreat toward Sharpsburg. Both sides suffering many casualties.

    34. Battle of Antietam September 17, 1862 Cont 1 p.m.- 3 p.m. After hours of fighting, Union soldiers cross Antietam Creek and attack Sharpsburg. The bridge is later renamed for their commander, General Burnside. 3:30 p.m. Confederate soldiers take the Union soldiers by surprise, forcing them to retreat back across the river and saving Lees army from defeat.

    35. The Battle of Shiloh (The war in the West) General Ulysses S. Grant had more success. Grant led a Union army from Illinois into Tennessee. He captured several Confederate forts along the way. In the Battle of Shiloh. Grant defeated a large Confederate army.

    36. At the Same Time The Union navy sailed up the Mississippi River and attacked New Orleans. By early 1863, the only major Confederate town left on the river was Vicksburg, Mississippi. From Vicksburgs cliffs, Confederate soldiers could shoot at Union ships on the river. (Grant NEEDED Vicksburg to control the river!)

    37. The Draft in the South Jefferson Davis, the president of the Confederacy, faced many problems. The Union blockade closed most Confederate ports. The south had trouble getting enough food, weapons, or money to fight. To find more soldiers, Davis had to start a draft.

    38. Review What is a draft?

    39. The Draft in the North President Abraham Lincoln faced many problems too. As the number of casualties rose, he had to work hard to win support for the war. Like the Confederacy, the Union had to start a draft.

    40. How could people get out of the draft? Rich people could pay to get out of the draft. This upset the people who could not afford the money and those who were against the war.

    41. In New York City, people opposed to the draft started a riot that lasted for days. A riot is a violent protest. The government had to send in thousands of soldiers to stop the riots.

    42. Lets Review Why did people in the North oppose the draft? Hmmm

    43. And the Answer is Rich people could pay to avoid it while poor people could not. They were opposed to the war.

    44. Question What were some of the problems Jefferson Davis faced? I know you know this

    45. Answer Trouble getting: food weapons money to fight Not enough people wanted to join the army

    46. Question What happened at the Battle of Antietam?

    47. Answer The Union army stopped General Lee from invading the North. The armies suffered a combined 23,000 casualties.

    48. Question Why was Vicksburg the only major Confederate town left to capture on the Mississippi River? Look closely at the photoyoull see the answer

    49. Answer Vicksburg sat on cliffs above the Mississippi River where Confederates could shoot at Union ships.

    50. Question What were the 4 border states at the start of the Civil War?

    51. Answer Kentucky Maryland Delaware Missouri

    52. Did You Know At first, the Confederacy won most of the battles in the East, while the Union won most of the battles in the West. However, victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg gave the Union the advantage in the war.

    53. Turning Points Main Idea Events in 1863 helped the Union become stronger in the Civil War.

    54. Did You Know At the start of the war, President Lincolns only goal was to keep the Union together. He did not plan to free the slaves. Many people in the North wanted him to end slavery

    55. What did President Lincoln do? Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing the salves. This action helped to weaken the Confederacy. He realized the freed slaves would work to help the Union.

    56. Emancipation Proclamation A document signed by Abraham Lincoln declaring slaves in the Confederacy free. It DID NOT end slavery in the border states.

    57. What did the Confederate states do? The Confederate states ignored the law! The Union knew they would have to defeat the Confederate states to free the slaves. The Emancipation Proclamation made the Civil War a war to end slavery in the South.

    58. Vicksburg and Gettysburg In 1863, the Union won two IMPORTANT battles. Vicksburg and Gettysburg

    59. Vicksburg Victory In the West, General Grants army surrounded Vicksburg and fired cannons into the town for 6 weeks. On July 4th Vicksburg surrender. The Union finally controlled the Mississippi River!

    60. Gettysburg Victory General Lee marched north into Pennsylvania. The Union army met Lees soldiers on July 1, near the town of Gettysburg. For two days the armies battled back and forth. On the third day, Lee ordered a final attack

    61. What happened next? Nearly 14,000 Confederate soldiers charged across open fields toward the Union army. The Union soldiers were ready!! They stopped the attack with rifle and cannon fire.

    62. Turning Point The heavy fire killed or wounded about half of the Confederate soldiers. Lees weakened army had to retreat. The Union victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg gave the Union a better chance of winning.

    63. The Gettysburg Address Later that year, President Lincoln gave a short speech known as the Gettysburg Address. In his speech, Lincoln declared that American democracy would survive. The speech is now considered famous.

    64. Question Why was the victory at Vicksburg important to the Union?

    65. Answer The Vicksburg victory gave the Union control of the Mississippi River.

    66. The End This is the end of Chapter 2, lesson 1. See how much smarter you are?!