CHAPTER 4: CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION. ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE.
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ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE Conflict over the expansion of slavery into the territories west of the Mississippi River in the 1820s-1850s caused tensions to mount between northern (manufacturing) states and southern (farming) states. The real battle wasn’t about slavery, but POWER in GOVERNMENT and whether factories or farming would be the basis of our nation’s economy.
I. Growth of Slavery • Industrial Revolution • Mid 1700s to early 1800s • North – Factories • South – Cotton gin (eliwhitney) What did most Northerners think about abolishing slavery?
II. The cause of tensions A. Who had gov’t power 1. Sectionalism B. What was economic basis 1. Farming or factories?
III. COMPROMISE OF 1850 • 15 and 15: California? • Gold Rush ‘49 • Extend compromise line?
Admits California as a free state Upholds popular sovereignty in New Mexico and Utah Settles Texas/New Mexico border dispute Bans slave trade in Washington, D.C. Includes Fugitive Slave Act COMPROMISE OF 1850 Compromise of 1850
IV. FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT Northerners now feel a part of the slave system. Doesn’t sit well with many
V. Popular Sovereignty • EOC vocab word! • Fancy term meaning that an issue (slavery in our case) is decided by popular vote. Everybody in the area in question votes and the majority wins. Pure democracy in action. • So why was this an issue? We are, after all, a nation built on the idea of democracy.
VI. KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT • Two territories • Supposed to be free • Popular Sovereignty • Bloody Kansas • Violence in Senate a. Sumner b. Brooks
VI. DRED SCOTT CASE • Slave in free territory (Wisc) • Supreme Court • Slaves are property; not people • Congressional power limited
VII. South Secedes Reasons 1. Lincoln elected 1860 • Won no Southern states • South: no voice in national gov’t
2. Economics of cotton a. worldwide demand b. impact of “take care of your own first”?
VII. Civil War Begins • South Carolina 1. first state to secede 2. Fort Sumter: Charleston 3. Union holds fort 4. Confederates bombard (4/12-4/14, 1861)
Long-Term Causes Immediate Cause Event South Secedes and the Civil War Begins
SECTION 1 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS • Why was the fight over farming or factories as the basis of the economy truly stupid? • It can be said that there is nothing more American than solving the slavery issue by popular sovereignty. Explain. • What was the ultimate reason the southern states seceded (separated) from the North?
SECTIONS 2 & 3 The Civil War
ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE The war was fought over economics until the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation, which we will go into in depth in class. Other than that, you must know the two turning point battles, Gettysburg and Vicksburg, the “Anaconda Plan” to squeeze South into submission and Grant’s scorched earth policy called “Total War”
Lincoln’s view on slavery “If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that.” —Abraham Lincoln, August 22, 1862, quoted in Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln From this, what is Lincoln’s obvious goal for the Civil War?
I. Battle of ANTIETAM (Summer, 1862) A. South invades North • Want British help • Emancipation Proclamation
II. Anaconda Plan • Strategy for Union (north) to make fighting war impossible for South.
III. GETTYSBURG/VICKSBURG A. Turning points (July 1863) • Gettysburg: Eastern front • Vicksburg: Western front
III. General U.S. Grant • Alcoholic before war • If I die, I die attitude • General of the west • Shiloh: did what was necessary 1. “All I do is win, win, win” E. Promoted 2 top general
IV. GRANT & TOTAL WAR • War dragging • Break will of South • Everything fair game • Wm. Tecumseh Sherman
SECTION 2 & 3 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS • Give a specific supporting fact for this statement: Lincoln did not make the Emancipation Proclamation so slaves could be free. • What was the theory behind the success of Total War?
SECTION 4 Reconstruction
ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE Reconstruction was the attempt to rebuild the South after the war, especially socially. Special attention was paid to protecting black rights. But you cannot change the hearts of people, so true black-white equality would not happen. Thus, Reconstruction’s ultimate goal of protecting black rights and empowering the former slaves largely failed. It led to implementation of segregation that would dominate until the 1960s in the South.
I. What was Reconstruction? • A. Rebuilding of the South economically and politically. • 1. Physical rebuilding was secondary • 2. Politics: Republicans (North) vs Dems (South)
II. Andrew Johnson’s Plan • 1. Pardon all except: • a. officers and officials • b. rich planter elite ($20,000+) • c. Why not RPE? • 2. State Conventions • a. Revoke secession • b. ratify 13th Amendment • 3. Former CSA officials earn 2nd chance • a. CSA VP in Senate! • b. Alarmed Republicans
III. Radical Reconstruction Southern states must: Ratify (approve) 13th, 14th,15th Amendments • 13th: slavery illegal • 14th: Born in USA, you’re a citizen • 15th: Can’t be denied the vote based on color • Write new state constitutions • Accept military rule until above is met No former CSA officials ever allowed to vote or hold office again.
INVISIBLE EMPIRE • Klu Klux Klan • Anti-Northern meddlers • Terrorism
IV. IMPEACHING JOHNSON • Congressional smack down for vetoes • High Crimes & Misdemeanors • 1 short • Powerless
V. South Limits Blacks Politically • Gerrymandering • Poll tax • Literacy Test
VI. South is “Redeemed” • Amnesty Act of 1872 1. voting back to CSA officials 2. Could hold office again 3. return of old leaders 4. Dems regain control
VII. RECONSTRUCTION ENDS • Unclaimed Electoral Votes: 1876 • Hayes’ deal • Union troops pull out • Return of racial oppression