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Letters and Seals • Friar John sent a message to Romeo. • Romeo sent a message to his father. • Lord Capulet sent his servant to invite guests to the party.
Great Households • The Capulets and the Montagues had servants in their houses. • Both houses treated their servants like part of the family. • The servants acted like part of the family.
Marriage Customs • The marriage between Romeo and Juliet did not end up following the regular customs. The wedding plans for Juliet and Paris would have been a grand affair, but Tybalt’s untimely death changed this.
Funeral Customs • Juliet’s body is placed inside a tomb near the church. • Her body is placed above ground with other members of her family.
Messengers • The nurse is a messenger for Juliet. • Friar John is a messenger for Friar Laurence. • The servant is a messenger for Lord Capulet.
Bells • Bells are used at the beginning of the play to signal an alarm(fight). • Bells are used for Juliet’s funeral and Romeo’s funeral.
Alchemy or Apothecary • Romeo went to the apothecary to get some poison to kill himself. • Juliet went to the Friar to get some help and he gave her a potion to help her sleep.
Dances • There were many dances that took place at the Capulet’s party where Romeo and Juliet met. • One dance even included bells.
What is it about? • The Montagues and Capulets are two rival families. • Both families are feuding and neither remember why. • What is Shakespeare trying to teach us about rivalries? • What is the real reason that the families are still fighting? • They are warned by Prince Escalus that if the fighting continues the participants will be executed. (Act I) • Romeo and Juliet meet at a Capulet party and experience “love at first sight.”’ • However, Juliet is betrothed to Count Paris. (Act I) • What are some predictions you can make from that new insight?
Things to Look for: • Theme: • Love concepts • Individual vs. society • Choice vs. fate • Light vs. dark • Opposite points of view • Parent-child relationships
Juliet : The daughter, age 13, of Capulet and Lady Capulet. Lord Capulet: The patriarch of the Capulet family, father of Juliet, husband of Lady Capulet, and enemy, for unexplained reasons, of Montague. Lady Capulet: Juliet’s mother, Capulet’s wife. The Nurse: Juliet’s nurse, the woman who cared for Juliet since she was a baby. Tybalt: A Capulet, Juliet’s cousin on her mother’s side. Samson & Gregory: Two servants of the house of Capulet, who, like their master, hate the Montagues. At the outset of the play, they successfully provoke some Montague men into a fight. Capulets
Montagues • Romeo: son, age 16, and heir of Montague and Lady Montague. • Lord Montague: Romeo’s father, the patriarch of the Montague clan and bitter enemy of Capulet. • Lady Montague: Romeo’s mother, Montague’s wife. She dies of grief after Romeo is exiled from Verona. • Benvolio: Montague’s nephew, Romeo’s cousin and thoughtful friend • Balthasar: Romeo’s dedicated servant, who brings Romeo the news of Juliet’s death, unaware that her death is a ruse.
Neither Capulet or Montague • No relation to the families: • Mercutio: A kinsman to the Prince, and Romeo’s close friend. • Paris: A kinsman of the Prince, and the suitor of Juliet most preferred by Capulet. • Friar Laurence: Franciscan friar, friend to both Romeo and Juliet. • Friar John: A Franciscan friar charged by Friar Lawrence with taking the news of Juliet’s false death to Romeo in Mantua. • Prince Escalus: The Prince of Verona.
Setting • Verona, Italy in the center of town
Important Figurative Language & More In Romeo & Juliet
Pun • The humorous use of word or phrase so as to emphasize or suggest its different meanings or applications, or the use of words that are alike or nearly alike in sound but different in meaning; play on words.
Oxymoron a figure of speech by, which produces a bizarre, seemingly self-contradictory effect as in “jumbo shrimp” or “cruel kindness”
Hyperbole An obvious and intentional exaggeration
Understatement To state or represent less strongly or strikingly than the facts would bear out; set forth in restrained, moderate, or weak terms.
Paradox A statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality express a possible truth.
Situational Irony An outcome that turns out to be very different from what was expected, the difference between what is expected to happen and what actually does.
Verbal Irony A figure of speech in which what is said is that opposite of what is meant
Dramatic Irony it is inherent in speeches or a situation of a drama and is understood by the audience but not grasped by the characters in the play.
Euphemism The substitution of mild, indirect, or vague expression for one thought to be offensive, harsh, or blunt.
An utterance or discourse by a person who is talking to himself or herself or is disregardful of or oblivious to any hearers present (often a device in drama to disclose a character’s innermost thoughts): Hamlet “To be or not to be” A digression in the form of an address to someone not present, or to a personified object or idea Soliloquy & Apostrophe
Simile: a figure of speech in which two unlike things are explicitly compared, as in “she is like a rose.” Metaphor: a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance. Personification: the attribution of a personal nature or character to inanimate objects or abstract notions, especially as a rhetorical figure. Onomatopoeia: the formation of a word, as cuckoo or boom, by imitation of a sound made by or associated with its referent. Refresher Figurative Language
More Refresher Figurative Language • Alliteration: • the commencement of two or more stressed syllables of a word group either with the same consonant sound or sound group (consonantal alliteration), as in from stem to stern, or with a vowel sound that may differ from syllable to syllable (vocalic alliteration), as in each to all. • Imagery: • Vivid descriptive language that appeals to one or more of the senses. • Symbolism: • The practice of representing things by means of symbols or of attributing symbolic meanings or significance to objects, events, or relationships. • Foreshadowing: • it can be a specific scene or object that gives a clue or hint as to a later development of the plot.
Foil Characters • A foilcharacter is a person who contrasts with another character (usually the protagonist) in order to highlight various features of the main character's personality: to throw the character of the protagonist into sharper focus. • Foil characters are opposites that are presented in a way that will highlight the actions or choices of the main character. For example, your main character might be someone who is completely against revenge. An appropriate foil for that would be a person who lives solely for revenge.
Foil Characters in R&J • Romeo and Tybalt: While both are very passionate characters, one spent his life living in a passionate state of anger, and the other is overcome by a passionate state of lust. You see Romeo’s fall when you see Romeo “fall” into the same state of his foil character – he is brought down by an overwhelming moment of vengeance. • Benvolio and Mercutio: While one portrays a serious and reasonable character, the other portrays a funny and rather unorthodox one. • The Nurse and Juliet’s Mother :While one portrays the friend and confidant aspect of motherhood, the other portrays the stern and domineering aspect. • Juliet and Rosaline: While one fell victim to the passionate impulsiveness of Romeo’s lust, the other remained steadfast and faithful to their morals