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NQF FOR HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEYDEVELOPMENTS & CHALLANGESProf. Dr. Mehmet DurmanSakarya University 4th Meeting of Regional Network on QF for SEE Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, September 15-16, 2011
OVERVIEW • A Brief Introduction to the Higher Education in Turkey • State of Development of NQF for Higher Education • Further Steps & Challenges Beyond 2011
HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY Organisation & Structure • UPPER BODIES OF HIGHER EDUCATION: • The Council of Higher Education (CoHE, YÖK) • The Inter-university Council (IUC, ÜAK). • CoHE is a fully autonomous corporate public body, which has no political or Governmental affiliation and composed of 20 members, responsible for • Planning • Coordination • Governance and • Supervision of higher education • within the provisions set forth in the Constitution (Articles 130 and 131) of the Turkish Republic and the Higher Education Law (Law No. 2547). • ÜAK is an academic advisory and a decision-making body in some academic matters and composed of rectors and one elected professor of each HEI.
HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY: Higher Education Institutions • Turkish Higher Education was unified in 1982 by Law Number, with changes in time designating three types of HEIs to be established as: • State Universities • Foundation Universities (private, non-profit) • Two-year Foundation Vocational Schools (private, non-profit) • and all these are to be governed by the same higher education law. • Universities are founded by law to be enacted by the Parliament upon the recommendation of the CoHE to the MoNE and the approval of the cabinet. • The faculties, graduate schools (institutes) and the four-year (vocational/professional) higher schools are founded by the decision of the Cabinet. • Establishment of the two-year vocational higher schools as well as the opening of degree programmes with in the academic units at any level are subjected to ratification by the CoHE upon application of the HEIs.
HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY: Higher Education Institutions • Foundation Since 2001, the number of state universities has increased from 76 to103, that of foundation universities from 23 to 62 and in total from 76 to165. *CoHE Statistics
HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY Higher Education Institutions The share of number of students studying in Associate’s & Bachelor’s degree programmes on distance education of the Open Education Faculty of Anadolu University in the total numbers of students studying at the same level of study programmes in all HEIs is about 47% and this should be reduced. *CoHE Statistics
HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY Higher Education Institutions: Student Enrollment Since 2001, student enrollments in HEIs have increased by almost two-fold. *CoHE Statistics
STATE OF DEVELOPMENT OF NQF FOR HE • Development of the Turkish National Qualifications Framework has been the major success within the framework of the Bologna Implementationsin Turkey not only because it forms the starting point and the core of the programme development, student/learner-centred approach of education and transparency at the both national and international levels but it also provides a basis for assessment and monitoring of study programmes, which an integrated quality assurance approach for both internal and external quality assurance at a programme or institutional level should take in to account.
STATE OF DEVELOPMENT OF NQF FOR HE STEPS IN ESTABLISMENT OF NQF FOR HE • Decision to start by CoHE: April 2006 • Setting the agenda: 2006-2008 • Organising the process (Commission, Working Groups): 2006-2008 • Design Profile (levels, descriptors, credits): 2009 • Consultation and national discussion: 2009 • Approval: Partially in May 2009, Fully in Jan. 2010 • Administrative set-up: 2011 (ongoing work) • Implement. at instiutional/programme level: Pilot: in 2011, Full: by Dec. 2012 • Inclusion of qualifications in TYYÇ (Quality Assurance.): 2010 - 2015 • Self-certifications of compatibility with Europen frameworks: 2010 - 2012 • TYYÇ Web site: www.tyyc.yok.gov.tr , established in 2011 9
STATE OF DEVELOPMENT OF NQF FOR HE • IN BRIEF: • Level descriptors for short, first, second and third cycles were prepared. • Reference level descriptors: EQF–LLL • Two main profiles for the NQF defined • Fields of Education in parallel to ISCED 97 defined and field-specific LOs for 22 fields of education prepared. • Descriptors were shared with universities and other related stakeholders Representatives from 55 NGOs including trade unions and 18 different Ministries, student councils) • Final version approved by CoHE in January 2010. • Pilot Implementation started at 4 universities. • Some other HEIs also initiated the process.
STATE OF DEVELOPMENT OF NQF FOR HE PROFILES AND CREDIT RANGES OF THE LEVELS OF QUALIFICATIONS IN NQF-TR
STATE OF DEVELOPMENT OF NQF FOR HE √ European Qualifications Framework (EQF-LLL) √ Turkish Qualfications Framework for HE (TYYÇ) QUALİTY ASSURANCE √ Field-specific Qualifications (LOs) Programme LOs Curriculum Design & LOs of Course Units 12
ISCED 97 EĞİTİM VE ÖĞRETİM TEMEL ALANLARI TYYÇ & ISCED 97 FIELDS OF EDUCATION ISCED 97 EĞİTİM VE ÖĞRETİM TEMEL ALANLARI www.tyyc.yok.gov.tr
STATE OF DEVELOPMENT OF NQF FOR HE • The amendments regarding NQF & QA activities in HEIs in the Higher Education Law (2547) made by a new law numbered 6111 (2011) • Recently, on 13 February 2011, due to the need for a change brought about by the recent developments and implementations in HE. There were some amendments made on Higher Education law 2547 by a new law numbered 6111, among which the major emphasis was on the Turkish Qualifications Framework for HE (TYYÇ) and internal and external quality assurance. By law it is, now, under the responsibility that HEIs should to see to it that the programmes they offer are in line with the requirements (in terms of credits and LOs) of the levels of the TYYÇ in relation and assure their quality through internal and external quality assurance mechanisms in accordance with the principles and the framework which is to be drawn out by the CoHE and the senates of the HEIs. • This new amendment to HE Law 2547 emphasis the urgent need a fully functional NQF and QA System to be established, which has been looked forward and loudly expressed by all internal and external stakeholders of HE, but this time, not ever done before, by law.
STATE OF DEVELOPMENT OF NQF FOR HE • A NEW INITIATIVE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF NQF FOR LLL • Decision to start : 7 July 2011, by the Council of Ministers within the action plan of the strengthening the link between vocational education and employment. • Action plan Includes 9 priority areas and 30 action lines • Development of the NQF for LLL is the first priorty area • Responsible Authority: National Qualifications Agency in coordination of the MoNE and CoHE
STATE OF DEVELOPMENT OF NQF FOR HE • A NEW INITIATIVE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF NQF FOR LLL NQF-LLL REPORT • Approval: November 2011. • Draft referencing report: December 2011 • A new commission and working group from the representitatives of NQA, MoNE and CoHE formed. • A time table set up.
STATE OF DEVELOPMENT OF NQF FOR HE • A NEW INITIATIVE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF NQF FOR LLL
STATE OF DEVELOPMENT OF NQF FOR HE • Operational and Organizational Difficulties and Challanges: • The number of HEIs has increased by amost two-folds in the recent years and some of newly established HEIs, which are in the initial stage of development, do not have the implementation issues of NQF primarily on their agenda. Some others are reluctant to start implementation because for those, NQF is still seen as imposed from outside (by Bologna Process), rather than it is being a part of national policy. • An efficient coordination among different ministries and institutions (CoHE, MoNE and NQA) is crucial for the establishment of a single and coherent NQF for LLL. Yet, the roles and responsibilities are not clearly defined in the present legislations and that causes over bureaucracy, the lack of authorisation and and leadership. • The other challenge would be the quality assurance of learning outcomes of educational and training programs developed in line with the NQF for LLL, which should encompass the procedures of recognition of informal learning . This would also require some more comprehensive quality assurance approaches which have not foreseen yet.
QUALITY ASSURANCE ACTIVITIES IN TURKEY • Thank you very much for your time.