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Islam and the Early Caliphates PowerPoint Presentation
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Islam and the Early Caliphates

Islam and the Early Caliphates

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Islam and the Early Caliphates

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  1. Islam and the Early Caliphates

  2. The Arabian Peninsula Pre-Islam • mostly nomadic tribes (Bedouins) • Tribes often fought • Worshipped a large variety of gods • Took pride in oral traditions/group loyalty • TRADERS (Muhammad was a merchant)

  3. Abraham’s Genealogy HAGAR ABRAHAM SARAH Ishmael Isaac 12 Arabian Tribes Jacob Esau 12 Tribes of Israel

  4. The Prophetic Tradition Adam Noah Abraham Moses Jesus Muhammad

  5. Mecca • Major trading/religious city • Importance of the Kaaba • located between Byzantine and Sassanid Empire

  6. The Messenger • Muhammad (570-632 C.E.) • Retreats and revelations • Famous text: Quran • Rejection of the Kaaba’s gods • Growing movement towards Allah/Yahweh as deity #1! • Followers were kicked out of town (the Hijra)

  7. Quran • Holy book of Islam • Called for a creation of a new society (Umma) based on justice

  8. The Five Pillars of Islam

  9. 1. The Shahada • The declaration of faith: There is no god except God, and Muhammad is HisMessenger. 1

  10. 2. The Salat • Prayers performed 5 times a day:* dawn* noon* late afternoon * sunset * before going to bed • Wash before praying. • Face Mecca and use a prayer rug. 2

  11. 2. The Salat(continued) • The call to prayer by themuezzin in the minaret. • Pray in the mosque on Friday. 2

  12. 3. The Zakat • Almsgiving (charitable donations). • About 2.5% of your wealth. 3

  13. 4. The Sawm • Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan. • No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan. 4

  14. 5. The Hajj • The pilgrimage to Mecca. • Must be done at least once in a Muslim’s lifetime. • 2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage every year. 5

  15. Pilgrims On The Road to And Camped Outside of Mecca Pil

  16. Muslims in the WorldToday

  17. Countries with the Largest Muslim Population * Arabs make up only 20% of the total Muslim population of the world.

  18. In What region of the world do the largest number of Muslims live? Europe North Africa The Middle East South and Southeast Asia Sub-Saharan Africa

  19. The Spread of Islam • Easy to learn and practice. • No priesthood. • Teaches equality. • Follow one law; The Sharia • Non-Muslims allowed religious freedom, but paid additional taxes. • Easily “portable”  nomads & trade routes. • The Weakness of nearby empires (Byzantine & Persian) allowed conquest

  20. The Dar al-Islam: The Unity found across Muslim areas supported by common practice The Worldof Islam 1 2 3 4 5

  21. Arab Empire: Early Years • Muhammad’s death caused division – who should lead? • Abu Bakr elected (632-634) • Goal of conquest brings the umma together

  22. Motives for Conquest • United • Distraction from internal fighting • Promised a share of the booty • AVOIDEDmass conversions • so they wouldn’t have to share their booty • so they could tax subjects at higher rates

  23. Chart Time! • Instructions: Make a Venn Diagram with 3 circles with at least three examples of how Islam spread by way of social, religious, and military factors (at least one of each).