Board work: How do you think your generation will differ from mine as a result of the events on September 11, 2001?
The way in which a child is raised has a tremendous role in their outcome as productive adults. What are your parents like? Strict? Easy going? Checked out?
Parenting Styles and Social Development Psychologist Diana Baumrind studied the parent-child relationship and came up with 4 different styles of parenting that greatly impact the child’s outcome. Authoritarian families Democratic/authoritative families Permissive/Laissez-faire families Uninvolved Parent (not included in your book)
Parenting Styles Authoritarian Democratic-Authoritative Parents • Parents are bosses • No questions or child participation • A dictatorship • Children participate • Discussion and negotiation • Children make decisions, but parents have veto power • A democracy
Parenting Styles (continued) Permissive—Laissez-faire Uninvolved Parent • Children have the final say • Parents give in to children • Give up—no rules; ignore children • Egocentric • Uncommitted to being a parent • Distant from children
Effects of Parenting Styles • Which style do you think is most effective? • Why? • Answer: Democratic/Authoritative Families
Democratic/Authoritative families • Adolescents are more confident of values and goals • Two factors are involved: 1. Establishment of limits 2. Responding to child with warmth and support
Continued Children more likely to want to make their own decisions • Assume responsibility gradually -not denied the opportunity (authoritarian) -not given too much too soon (permissive) • Identify with parents - those who show love and respect - not those who treat children as incompetent • Present a model of responsible, cooperative independence the growing person to imitate
Note: • Parents are not solely responsible for the way their children turn out • Who else? • Children themselves
Child Abuse • Child Abuse: Includes the physical or mental injury, sexual abuse, negligent treatment, or mistreatment of children under the age of 18 by adults entrusted with their care. • Accurate statistics are difficult to compile, but in 2003 about 3 million cases were reported. After investigation, about 906,000 cases were confirmed.
What Causes this? • Child abuse results from many different causes. • Many abusive parents were themselves mistreated as children, suggesting that such parents may have learned an inappropriate way of caring for their children. • Such parents tend to use harsh physical discipline with their children and have very little patience. • Often, abusive parents have unrealistic expectations of their children as well.
Social Development • Socialization: The process of learning the rules of behavior of the culture within which an individual is born and will live. • Can anyone explain this? • In order to live with other people, a child has to learn what is considered both acceptable and unacceptable. • So, the process of socialization should be easy right? Why?
Social Development • Some social rules are stable, some are open to interpretation, and some change on a daily basis! • Differences in social behavior of boys and girls. • Examples? • Fair?
Social Development • Socialization not only involves learning the rules and “norms” of society, but also ideas, sexual characteristics, culture, and how to live with other people and yourself. • Another primary part of learning the socialization process is learning your limitations and physical abilities. • Example: A “4” year old who realizes she cannot hit a softball on the first try while other children can, knows how painful it can be to discover her limitations.
Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development! • Sigmund Freud (who we have already talked about) believed that all children are born with powerful sexual and aggressive urges! • According to Freud, in learning to control these impulses, children acquire a sense of right and wrong. The results are different for boys and girls.
Psychosexual Development • According to Freud, in the first few years of life, boys and girls have similar experiences. • Their erotic pleasures are obtained through the mouth, sucking at their mother’s breast. • Further, Freud states, that weaning the child from nursing is a period of frustration and conflict – it is the child’s first experience with not getting what he wants.
Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development! • According to Freud, there are “5” basic stages of psychosexual development. • 1. Oral Stage – Infant pleasure from mouth/first 18 months of life. • 2. Anal Stage – Infant pleasure from “elimination”/1½ -3 • 3. Phallic Stage – Infant pleasure from genitals/ 3-6 years. • 4. Latency Stage – Sexual thoughts repressed. Focus on social/intellectual skills/ 6 years to puberty. • 5. Genital Stage – Sexual desires are renewed. Thoughts of relationships. (puberty through adulthood)
Special notes about stages… • According to Freud, during the “Phallic Stage,” the child becomes a rival for the affections of the parent of the opposite sex! • The boy wants to win his mother for himself and finds himself in hostile conflict with his father. • The girl wants her father for herself and tries to shut out her mother. • Freud goes on to say that these struggles take place on an unconscious level!
A Few Definitions… • Identification: The process by which a child adopts the values and principles of the same-sex parent.(occurs between 3-5 years old, in the phallic stage) • Sublimation: The process of redirecting sexual impulses into learning tasks. (occurs 6 years old, in the latency stage)
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development! Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development!
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development! • Erik Erikson • 1902 – 1994 • Uses a much “broader” view of human development than Freud did. • Childhood is an “interactive process.” The child is constantly growing as he reaches milestones and interacts with others.
Psychosocial Development - Erikson • Although Erikson recognizes a child’s sexual and aggressive urges, he believes that the need for social approval is just as important. • In order to assess whether or not his beliefs made sense, Erikson studied what he called Psychosocial Development. • Psychosocial Development: Life periods in which an individual’s goal is to satisfy desires associated with social needs.
Psychosocial Development • While Erikson believes that childhood experiences have a lasting impact on the individual, he also sees development as a lifelong interactive process between people.
Crises! • Erikson argues that we all face many crises as we grow from infancy to old age, as we mature, and as people expect more from us. • Each of these crises represents an issue that everyone faces. • The child, adolescent, or adult may develop more strongly in one way or another, depending on how other people respond to his or her efforts.
Example • A 2-year old is delighted with his newfound ability to walk, to get into things, to use words, and to ask questions. The very fact that he has acquired these abilities adds to his self-esteem, and he is eager to use them. If the adults around him applaud his efforts, he begins to develop a sense of independence. • Predict what will happen if the baby is ignored?
Learning Theories of Development • Both Freud and Erikson stress the emotional dynamics of social development. They believe children learn the ways of their social world because they are rewarded for conforming and because they copy older children and adults in anticipation of future rewards.
Cognitive Development Approach • Sees the child as the shaper – they help mold themselves • . The games children play illustrate this. • When children are left alone to play with one another, they must learn to: • 1. agree. • 2. relax and enjoy themselves. • 3. adhere to established rules. • 4. get along with each other.
Children’s Games • Much of children’s play involves “role taking.” • Role Taking: Children’s play that involves assuming adult roles, thus enabling the child to experience different points of view. • When role taking, youngsters try on such adult roles as mother, father, teacher, storekeeper, explorer, and rock star!
More “Role Taking” • Role Taking allows children to experience different points of view first hand. • Example: One child may play the role of a mother, while the other child acts as a whiny baby. The children may then learn the frustrations of an actual parent. • What might this cause?
Lawrence Kohlberg • 1927 – 1987 • Studied social and moral development. • What is right, and what is wrong. • Looked at many different ages.
Stage 1 = children are egocentric. Cant consider other people’s points of views and have no sense of right and wrong. • Stage 2 = Have a better idea of how to receive awards and avoid punishment • Stage 3 = children become acutely sensitive to what other people want and think. They desire social approval. • Stage 4 = child is less concerned with the approval of others and rather adheres to moral codes of right and wrong.
Stages of Moral Development (page 86) Topic of example, “stealing drugs!”
Continued • To reach the highest levels of moral development, a child must first be able to see other people’s point of view. Yet this understanding is no guarantee that a person will respect the rights of others. Thus, the development of thinking or cognitive abilities influences moral development.
Wrap up • Determine how well your beliefs agree with those of your parents. How important do you think your early social training was for what you believe?