slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Extreme Heat Events Climate Change Training Module PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Extreme Heat Events Climate Change Training Module

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 50

Extreme Heat Events Climate Change Training Module - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 160 Views
  • Uploaded on

Extreme Heat Events Climate Change Training Module. Extreme Heat Events, Climate Change and Public Health. Minnesota Climate and Health Program Minnesota Department of Health Environmental Impacts Analysis Unit October 2012. 625 Robert Street North PO Box 64975 St. Paul, MN 55164-0975.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Extreme Heat Events Climate Change Training Module' - keegan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Extreme Heat Events

Climate Change Training Module

Extreme Heat Events, Climate Change and Public Health

Minnesota Climate and Health Program

Minnesota Department of Health

Environmental Impacts Analysis Unit

October 2012

625 Robert Street North

PO Box 64975

St. Paul, MN 55164-0975

notice
Notice

MDH developed this presentation based on scientific research published in peer-reviewed journals. References for information can be found in the relevant slides and/or at the end of the presentation.

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Discuss climate changes and temperature trends in Minnesota
  • Define extreme heat event (EHE) and the relationship between climate change/temp trends and EHE
  • Define Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect
  • Describe human health impacts of EHE and the populations most vulnerable to or risk factors of EHE
  • Discuss public health response and individual strategies
objectives
Objectives
  • Discuss climate changes and temperature trends in Minnesota
  • Define Extreme heat event (EHE) and the relationship between climate change/temp trends and EHE
  • Define Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect
  • Describe human health impacts of EHE and the populations most vulnerable to or risk factors of EHE
  • Discuss public health response and individual strategies
weather versus climate
Weather versus Climate
  • Weather: conditions of the atmosphere over a short period of time
  • Climate: conditions of the atmosphere over long periods of time (30-year standard averaging period)
climate changes in minnesota
Climate Changes in Minnesota
  • There have been three recent significant observed climate trends in Minnesota:
    • The average temperature is increasing
    • The average number of days with a high dew point may be increasing
    • The character of precipitation is changing
temperature changes1
Temperature Changes
  • Three significant observations in this overall warming:
    • Winter temperatures have been rising about twice as fast as annual average temperatures
    • Minimum or 'overnight low' temperatures have been rising faster than the maximum temperature, or ‘daytime high’
    • Since the early 1980s, the temperature has risen slightly over 1°F in southern Minnesota to a little over 2°F in much of the northern part of the state
dew point changes
Dew Point Changes
  • Dew point definition: Dew point is a measure of water vapor in the air.
  • The higher the dew point, the more difficult it is for people's sweat to evaporate, which is how they would otherwise shed body heat.
  • The number of days with high dew point temperatures (≥ 70 °F) may be increasing in Minnesota.
dew point changes1
Dew Point Changes

Source: Dr. Mark Seeley, Climatologist, University of Minnesota

precipitation changes
Precipitation Changes

On average, the total precipitation in the state has increased since the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s.

precipitation changes1
Precipitation Changes
  • The character of precipitation in Minnesota is changing
    • More localized, heavy precipitation events
    • Potential to cause both increased flooding and drought
objectives1
Objectives
  • Discuss climate changes and temperature trends in Minnesota
  • Define Extreme heat event (EHE) and the relationship between climate change/temp trends and EHE
  • Define Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect
  • Describe human health impacts of EHE and the populations most vulnerable to or risk factors of EHE
  • Discuss public health response and individual strategies
definition of extreme heat events
Definition of Extreme Heat Events

Criteria shift depending upon:

  • Temperature
  • Dew Point/ Relative Humidity
  • Cloud cover
  • Different local standards for what is ‘unusually’ hot weather
heat index
Heat Index
  • The Heat Index (HI): calculation that describes how the air temperature and dew point are perceived the human body
national weather service1
National Weather Service

Greater MN Extreme Heat Warning System:

Heat Advisory

  • Maximum heat index is expected to reach 100°F and/or the maximum temperature is ≥ 95°F
  • Warnings issued if advisory criteria are expected for ≥ 4 days and/or maximum heat index is ≥ 105°F with minimum heat index ≥ 75°F for at least 48 hours

Source: NWS, 2011

national weather service2
National Weather Service

Ramsey/Hennepin County Extreme Heat Warning System: Heat Advisory

  • ≥ 95°F heat index for at least 1 day, or
  • ≥ 95°F heat index with minimum overnight low temperature ≥ 75°F for at least 2 days
  • Warnings issued if conditions are expected for 4 or more days and/or maximum heat index reaches 100°F for at least 1 day.

Source: NWS, 2011

recent extreme heat events
Recent Extreme Heat Events
  • 5 heat episodes in summer 2011 worthy of issuances of warnings or advisories:
    • June 6-7
    • June 30-July 1
    • July 16-20
    • July 23
    • August 1
extreme heat event records
Extreme Heat Event Records

July 19, 2011:

  • All-time heat index record for the Twin Cities. The air temperature reported at worst hour was 95°F and was paired with the 82°F dew point temperature
    • heat index of 119°F
  • Record state dew point

temperature of 88°F

with 93°F air temp

    • heat index of 130°F
historical minnesota ehe
Historical Minnesota EHE

Red denotes dewpoint driven

1883, 1894, 1901, 1910, 1917, 1921, 1931, 1933, 1934, 1936, 1937, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1955, 1957, 1959, 1964, 1976, 1977, 1983, 1988, 1995,1999, 2001, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2010

ehe and climate changes
EHE and Climate Changes
  • In Minnesota more EHE are led by high dew points, and dew points may be rising
  • Relief from EHE comes from overnight low temperatures, and overnight low temperatures are rising
  • Minnesota is at risk of more EHE
objectives2
Objectives
  • Discuss climate changes and temperature trends in Minnesota
  • Define Extreme heat event (EHE) and the relationship between climate change/temp trends and EHE
  • Define Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect
  • Describe human health impacts of EHE and the populations most vulnerable to or risk factors of EHE
  • Discuss public health response and individual strategies
urban heat islands uhi
Urban Heat Islands (UHI)
  • Definition: Elevated temperatures in urban and suburban areas relative to outlying rural surroundings
  • Causes:
    • Reduced vegetation
    • Dark heat-absorbing surfaces
    • Reflective surfaces

Effect is proportional to the size of the city – but all cities, large and small, have them

On average, a city with 1M people can have a 2-6°F UHI

On clear, calm nights, this can be as high as 20+°F

urban heat islands
Urban Heat Islands
    • Results in higher daytime temperatures and reduced nighttime cooling (pavement releases heat at night) – year round effect
  • Consequences
    • Economic cost of cooling buildings because of UHI in summer
    • Lack of bitterly low temps in

winter

    • Increased severe weather
    • Precipitation changes -

~30% increase in

precipitation downwind

    • Production of air pollutants

(ground-level ozone)

    • Worsen heat waves in the

urban areas

    • Overall effect urban ecosystems

Source: EPA, 2008

mitigating urban heat islands
Mitigating Urban Heat Islands
  • Green roofs:
    • Vegetative layer grown

on a rooftop

    • Reduces temperatures

on roof surface through

shade and evapotrans-

piration

  • Cool roofs/pavements:
    • Highly reflective materials
    • Can remain 50-60°F cooler than traditional materials during peak summer heat
  • Permeable pavements:
    • Moisture within the pavement structure evaporates as the surface heats, thus drawing heat out of the pavement, similar to evaporative cooling from vegetated land cover

Target Center Roof in Minneapolis

mitigating urban heat islands1
Mitigating Urban Heat Islands
  • Adding trees and vegetation

Thermal image of

New York City

Vegetation in

New York City

Images from NASA

objectives3
Objectives
  • Discuss climate changes and temperature trends in Minnesota
  • Define Extreme heat event (EHE) and the relationship between climate change/temp trends and EHE
  • Define Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect
  • Describe human health impacts of EHE and the populations most vulnerable to or risk factors of EHE
  • Discuss public health response and individual strategies
ehe and human health
EHE and Human Health

Extreme heat events can cause:

  • Heat tetany (hyperventilation)
  • Heat rash
  • Heat cramps
  • Heat exhaustion
  • Heat edema (swelling)
  • Heat syncope (fainting)
  • Heat/sun stroke
  • Death
deaths from ehe
Deaths from EHE
  • From 1979 to 2003, more

people in America died

from extreme heat than

from floods, hurricanes,

lightning, tornadoes, and

earthquakes combined

  • The 1995 Chicago heat wave

caused more than 600 heat-

related deaths over 5 days

  • France, summer of 2003: 14,802 excess deaths The 2010 Moscow heat wave caused more than 11,000 excess deaths

(Hurricane Katrina: 1,833 confirmed deaths, World Trade Center: 2,726 deaths)

populations at risk to ehe
Populations At Risk to EHE
  • Everyone
  • Elderly persons 65 years and older
    • Especially who live alone
  • Children
  • Persons with pre-existing

disease conditions

  • Persons taking certain

medications that hinder thermo-

regulation or cause dehydration

ehe deaths by age group
EHE Deaths by Age Group

Source: Adcock et al, 2000 – CDC MMWR

risk factors
Risk Factors
  • Lack of air conditioners in homes
  • Low socioeconomic status
  • Living in urban areas: urban heat island effect
  • Living in topmost floor
  • Living in nursing homes /

being bedridden

  • Living alone / Lack of social

or family ties

  • Prolonged exposure to sun
  • Drinking alcohol
objectives4
Objectives
  • Discuss climate changes and temperature trends in Minnesota
  • Define Extreme heat event (EHE) and the relationship between climate change/temp trends and EHE
  • Define Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect
  • Describe human health impacts of EHE and the populations most vulnerable to or risk factors of EHE
  • Discuss public health response and individual strategies
public health response to ehe
Public Health Response to EHE

Six key steps for responding to extreme heat events:

  • Develop a heat response plan
  • Predict the extreme heat event
  • Assess risk and determine activation of the response plan
  • Activate the response plan and notify the public
  • Implement the response plan
  • Evaluate the response plan
heat response plan
Heat Response Plan

A heat response plan should be developed before an extreme heat event.

Heat response plan may be added as annex to local all-hazard plan.

Response Plan Critical Elements:

  • Identification of a lead agency responsible for the response plan
  • Defined criteria for activating and deactivating the plan
  • Defined roles and activities of agencies and organization involved with the plan
  • A communications plan for communicating heat-related information to partners and the public before, during and after an extreme heat event
  • Identification of high-risk and vulnerable persons
  • Strategies for preventing morbidity and mortality from extreme heat
  • Evaluation of the response plan
identification of high risk and vulnerable persons
Identification of high-risk and vulnerable persons
  • Map populations at risk to assist development of strategies for targeted outreach in heat response plan.
  • See MDH Climate Change website for statewide maps of vulnerable populations and data sources for risk factors.
  • http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/climatechange/index.html
strategies for preventing morbidity and mortality
Strategies for preventing morbidity and mortality
  • Promote pre-summer awareness education & ongoing communication with the public
  • Dissemination information & plan with local partners (e.g., local Red Cross chapter, social service organizations, etc.)
  • Activate a heat line
  • Designate community ‘cooling centers’
  • Suspend utility shutoffs and provide transportation and financial assistance
  • And more!
strategies for individuals
Strategies for Individuals
  • Stay Hydrated!
    • Drink plenty of fluids
    • Avoid alcoholic beverages
    • Avoid drinks that are high in sugar
  • Stay Cool!
    • Stay indoors, in air-conditioned places
    • Fans are not effective in high 90s°F
    • Wear lightweight, light-colored, loose

fitting clothing

  • If you must be outside:
    • Schedule outdoor activities carefully
    • Take time to adjust to the heat
    • Pace yourself
strategies for individuals1
Strategies for Individuals
  • Check on persons at more risk to heat:
    • Do not leave children or pets in cars
    • Check on elderly neighbors
  • Stay informed!
    • Listed to the local news for daily weather forecast
    • Get health and safety info from local public health department
summary
Summary
  • Minnesota’s climate has become warmer and more humid
  • Minnesota may experience more frequent and/or intense EHE
  • Minnesota may experience higher morbidity and mortality due to EHE
  • Certain populations are more vulnerable to EHE
  • Public health practitioners should be aware of where those populations are located and know how to mitigate the risks to EHE
resources
Resources
  • Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) Climate & Health Program
    • http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/climatechange/index.html
  • MN State Climatology Office
    • http://climate.umn.edu/
  • National Weather Service – Twin Cities
    • http://www.crh.noaa.gov/mpx/
  • Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) Climate & Health Program
    • http://www.cdc.gov/climatechange/
mdh extreme heat toolkit
MDH Extreme Heat Toolkit
  • Introduction to extreme heat events
    • Why care?
    • Minnesota is warming
    • Defining extreme heat events
  • Extreme Heat Events and Public Health
    • Health issues caused by extreme heat
    • Characteristics that negatively affect health outcomes from extreme heat
  • Preparing Minnesota for Extreme Heat Events
    • Key steps for responding to extreme heat events
    • Developing a heat response plan
    • Additional strategies to prevent heat-related morbidity and mortality
    • Mitigation/adaptation to extreme heat
    • Training and resources for extreme heat
  • Appendices:
    • Draft language for heat response plan/excessive heat annex
    • A tip sheet for individuals
    • Data sources for characteristics that increase the risk of heat-related illnesses
    • Extreme heat mapping: using GIS to identify populations at risk & resources
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

This work was supported by cooperative agreement 5UE1EH000738 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Special thanks to the following people for their contributions to the creation of this training module:

Pam Blixt, Minneapolis Health & Family Support

Geri Maki, MDH

Myrlah Olson, MDH

Dr. Mark Seeley, University of Minnesota

Don Sheldrew, MDH

Dr. Peter Snyder, University of Minnesota

Dr. Tracy Twine, University of Minnesota

thank you
Thank You

Contact the Minnesota Climate and Health Program:

651-201-4893

health.climatechange@state.mn.us

http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/climatechange/

Questions?

October 10, 2012

references
References

Adcock MP, Bines WH, Smith FW (2000), “Heat-Related Illnesses, Deaths, and Risk Factors – Cincinnati and Dayton, Ohio, 1999, and United States, 1979-1997,”

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4921a3.htm.

Anderson GB and Bell ML (2011), “Heat waves in the United States: Mortality risk during heat waves and effect modification by heat wave characteristics in 43 US communities,” Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(2), 210.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2009), “Extreme Heat: A Prevention Guide to Promote Your Personal Health and Safety,” Available online: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/extremeheat/heat_guide.asp

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2002), “Deaths in World Trade Center Terrorist Attacks – New York City, 2001,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 51 (Special Issue); 16-18. Available online:http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm51SPa6.htm

EPA (2008), “Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies,” Available online: http://www.epa.gov/heatisld/resources/compendium.htm.

Galatowitsch S, Frelich L, and Phillips-Mao L (2009), “Regional Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Biodiversity Conservation in a Midcontinental Region of North America,” Biological Conservation 142: 2012–2022.

Horstmeyer, SL. 2008. Relative humidity . . . Relative to what? The dew point temperature . . . a better approach. Available online: http://www.shorstmeyer.com/wxfaqs/humidity/humidity.htm

IPCC (2007), “Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis.” Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M and Miller HL (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.

Knabb RD, Rhome JR, and Brown DP (2005, Updated 2006 and 2011), “Tropical Cyclone Report Hurricane Katrina 23-30 August 2005,” National Hurricane center. Available online: http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL122005_Katrina.pdf

Kovats RS and Hajat S (2008), “Heat stress and public health: a critical review,” Annu Rev Public Health; 29:41-55.

Larsen, Janet (2006), “Setting the Record Straight: More than 52,000 Europeans Died from Heat in Summer 2003,” Plan B Updates, Earth Policy Institute. Available online: http://www.earth-policy.org/plan_b_updates/2006/update56

Matt Friedlein, Meteorologist, National Weather Service - Twin Cities/Chanhassen, MN, Personal communication, August 29, 2011

Michael Timlin, Regional Climatologist, Midwestern Regional Climate Center. Retrieved on June 23, 2011 from http://mcc.sws.uiuc.edu/climate_midwest/mwclimate_change.htm

MN State Climatology Office (2011a), “Record Dew Point Temperature in the Twin Cities: July 19, 2011,” Available online: http://climate.umn.edu/doc/journal/dew_point110719.htm

MN State Climatology Office (2011b), “Record Dew Point Temperature for Minnesota,” Available online: http://climate.umn.edu/doc/journal/record_state_dew_point.htm,

National Parks Service (NPS) (2010), “What is Climate Change?” Available online: http://www.nps.gov/goga/naturescience/climate-change-causes.htm

references cont
References (cont.)

(NWS, 2009a) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Weather Service (June 25, 2009). Retrieved on June 22,2011 from http://nws.noaa.gov/glossary/index.php?letter=h

(NWS, 2009b) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Weather Service (Modified June 25, 2009). Retrieved on June 22, 2011 from http://www.epa.gov/heatisld/resources/glossary.htm#u

(NWS, 2010) Image from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Weather Service (Modified August 19, 2010). Retrieved on June 23, 2011 from http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/heat/index.shtml

(NWS, 2010b) Service area map for the six National Weather Service stations serving Minnesota and Western Wisconsin, http://www.crh.noaa.gov/images/mpx/nwsmn_wi_responsibility.gif

(NWS, 2011) National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office, Twin Cities MN, http://www.crh.noaa.gov/mpx/?n=wwadef, Page last modified: October 31st 2011 7:44 PM, Retrieved on November 4, 2011

(NWS, 2011b) National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office. Grand Forks, ND. “Hottest Place On Earth?” July 2011. Available online: http://www.crh.noaa.gov/news/display_cmsstory.php?wfo=fgf&storyid=71074&source=2

(NWS, 2012) NOAA/NWS Climate Prediction Center. 2012. US Seasonal Drought Outlook. April 5 – June 30, 2012. Available online: http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/expert_assessment/seasonal_drought.html

Russian City Official, EvegenyaSmirnova (as reported by Agence France Presse [AFP]) says nearly 11,000 more people died in Moscow during July and August 2010 than at the same time in 2009.

Scott, Michon (2006), “Beating the Heat in the World’s Big Cities,” NASA, Earth Observatory. Available online: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/GreenRoof/greenroof.php

Seeley M (2011), “Climate Trends in Minnesota: Current Trends and Projections,” MN State Climatology Office, Available online: http://climate.umn.edu/seeley/

Seeley M (2012), “Twin Cities Annual Number of Days Where Dewpoint Temperature => 70 degrees F.” (chart)

Snyder P (2012), “Islands in the Sun,” presented January 19, 2012. University of Minnesota Department of Soil, Water, and Climate.

Western Regional Climate Center. 2011a. Minnesota Temperature 1890 – 2010: 12 month period ending in December. Generated online November 2011. Available online: http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/spi/divplot1map.html

Western Regional Climate Center. 2011b. Minnesota Precipitation 1890 – 2010: 12 month period ending in December. Generated online November 2011. Available online: http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/spi/divplot1map.html

Whitman, S., Good, G., Donoghue, E. R., Benbow, N., Shou, W., & Mou, S. (1997). “Mortality in Chicago attributed to the July 1995 heat wave,” American Journal of Public Health, 87(9), 1515.

ZandloJ. 2008. Observing the climate. Minnesota State Climatology Office. Available online: http://climate.umn.edu/climateChange/climateChangeObservedNu.htm

photo credits
Photo Credits
  • Slide 5: Microsoft Clipart
  • Slide 14: Microsoft Clipart
  • Slide 19: Summer by Juxxo, 2006 on Deviantart.com
  • Slide 24: Arizona State Department of Agriculture (provided by Peter Synder)
  • Slide 25: Page 14 (EPA, 2008)
  • Slide 26: Image courtesy NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio (1997). Available online: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/GreenRoof/Images/atlanta_thermal.jpg
  • Slide 27: Image source - Pam Blixt, City of Minneapolis, Department of Health and Family Support
  • Slide 30: Microsoft Clipart
  • Slide 31: AFP/Getty Images (provided by Peter Synder)
  • Slide 32: Image from the University of Virginia Institute on Aging. Available online: http://www.virginia.edu/insideuva/2005/02/aging.html
  • Slide 34: Microsoft Clipart
  • Slide 41: Microsoft Clipart
  • Slide 42: Microsoft Clipart