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Essential Question: How are proteins synthesized?. Bellringer : Answer questions 1-4. 1. As an organism grows it often requires more copies of its DNA for new cells. Which of the following processes is responsible for producing more DNA?

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essential question how are proteins synthesized

Essential Question:How are proteins synthesized?

Bellringer:Answer questions 1-4.

1. As an organism grows it often requires more copies of its DNA for new cells. Which of the following processes is responsible for producing more DNA?

(1)Transpiration (2) Replication (3) Respiration (4) Active Transport

2. Complete the DNA sequence below.

Strand 1 A T A T G G C C A

Strand 2 __________________

3. State the function of each organelle listed below:

Nucleus: _________________________________________________

Ribosome: ________________________________________________

4. Identify the building block of proteins. ________________________

slide2

CAUGUACUA

Used to

make

Used to

make

AA

AA

AA

Overview: How are Proteins Made?

C-G

T-A

G-C

T-A

A-T

DNA

mRNA

Proteins

slide3

Read the descriptions provided with your partner.

Then label the processes occurring and the molecules used.

NUCLEUS

Protein

DNA

mRNA

RIBOSOME

Amino Acid Chain

Translation

Transcription

protein synthesis
Protein Synthesis!

http://youtu.be/41_Ne5mS2ls

slide5

More about Transcription

During transcription DNA must be transcribed into a single stranded mRNA and sent to the ribosome. When mRNA is made, base pairings change slightly

THE SAME: T-A, C-G, C-G DIFFERENT: A-U

Practice: Transcribe the DNA base sequences below into mRNA codons.

1. DNA Base Sequence T A T G G C A T T

mRNA codon _____ ______ ______

2. DNA Base Sequence A C T C T A A T G

mRNA codon _____ ______ ______

think pair share
Think, Pair, Share

Why might it be better for the cell to make mRNA to send to the ribosome rather than sending the DNA?

slide7

More about Translation

The second step in protein synthesis is called translation because the ribosome reads the mRNA codons and “translates” the bases into amino acids, which is like a whole other language! To determine what amino acid the mRNA codes for—simply look it up in the Universal Genetic Code chart!

slide8

Practice

Practice: Translate the mRNA codons into a chain of amino acids to make a protein!

mRNA codon - AUA-AGU-CAU-UUC-UGA

Amino Acids- ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

slide10

Partner Practice!!

1. Match the numbered stages with the correct lettered descriptions below

1. transcription ____

2. replication ____

3. translation ____

A) stage during which information coded in the base sequence of DNA is read to produce a strand of mRNA

B) process during which the genetic code in RNA is used to make proteins

C) process in which strands of DNA are separated and each is paired with nucleotides in order to form two new strands of DNA

2. Which three codons would code for a different amino acid sequence from that coded for by the mRNA base sequence GGU-CGA-CUG

 (1) GGU-AGA-CUG

(2) GGC-CGA-CUA

(3) GGU-CGU-CCG

(4) GGA-CGC-CUC

3. Fill in an mRNA codon that would code for each amino acid shown.

Amino acid: GLU - PHE - TRP

mRNA codon: ______ ______ ______

slide11

2. Fill in an mRNA codon that would code for each amino acid shown.

Amino acid: GLU - PHE - TRP

mRNA codon: ______ ______ ______

3. Which three codons would code for a different amino acid sequence from that coded for by the mRNA base sequence GGU-CGA-CUG

 (1) GGU-AGA-CUG

(2) GGC-CGA-CUA

(3) GGU-CGU-CCG

(4) GGA-CGC-CUC