Modern Europe and North America. 1945-Today. Roots of Cold War – Potsdam Conference. Cold War has its issues begin with how to have peace in Post World War II world in Europe.
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Cold War has its issues begin with how to have peace in Post World War II world in Europe.
Potsdam Conference – This was the meeting where the Allies got together to decide how to deal with Germany after the war.
Major agreements made:
Divide Germany into four temporary zones of occupation – Soviet Union would control a third while the other allies would control the other two-thirds.
German capital city, Berlin, would be divided into four zones of occupation as well
Must get rid of Nazi Party in Germany and bring them to justice for crimes committed against humanity – leads to the Nuremberg Trials (1945-1949)
Germany would pay war reparations for the destruction caused by the war, but this would be paid through industrial equipment and currency – avoiding another depression – Soviet Union receives the largest portion.
Allies had a plan for German occupation, but could not solve the problem with the rest of Europe.
All of the Allies disagreed on terms
Soviet Union – felt that it needed a buffer zone between it and Germany because it had been invaded by Germany in both World Wars and it wanted an area that had Soviet friendly governments to help protect it from German aggression
U.S. and Great Britain – wanted the countries of Eastern Europe to be able to decide what types of governments they would have and felt that Stalin and Soviet Union was looking to put in pro-Communist governments in Eastern Europe
This growing tension and distrust would continue to lead to greater tensions and fuel the Cold War hostilities.
After Japan surrenders to end World War II – allies receive the Korean Peninsula
Soviet Union takes the Northern half – Communist government established
United States takes the Southern half – non-Communist regime supported by U.S.
1950 – North Korea attacks South Korea
Goal: Unite the country under a Communist government
U.S. felt that if they did nothing to stop this, then other Communist areas would invade their non-Communist neighbors
U.N. (United Nations) – decided to send a force into Korea which was nearly defeated until General Douglas MacArthur, the U.N. force commander, invades Inchon behind enemy lines and turned the tide of the war by forcing the North Koreans all the way back to the Chinese/North Korean border
Communist Chinese forces then attack the U.N. forces and push them back to the original line between North and South Korea – war becomes a stalemate
1953 – Armistice signed – 38th parallel now divides North and South Korea
Cuban Crisis – Communism in Cuba – this is an issue because Cuba is only 60 miles from the Florida coastline
Cuban government overthrown by Fidel Castro in 1959
Bay of Pigs Invasion – U.S. tried to overthrow Castro by training Cuban freedom fighters and in April of 1961 they turned them loose in hopes of starting a massive Cuban rebellion – Castro quickly put down the rebellion and Cuba stays Communist
Cuban Missile Crisis – 1962 confrontation between the U.S. and Soviet Union over the Soviet Union trying to put nuclear missiles in Cuba
Soviet Union said this was a response to American nuclear weapons in Turkey
Led to a 2-week standoff in the Atlantic Ocean near Cuba
Settlement – U.S. agrees not to attack Cuba and remove missiles from Turkey and Soviet Union removed missiles from Cuba
1956 conflict with Egypt over Suez Canal – Soviet Union threatened to side with Egypt in its conflict against Israel and her ally the United States
Afghanistan 1980 – Soviet Union invades and tries to overthrow the Afghan government, but U.S. trains freedom fighters called the Taliban to fight against the Soviets – Osama Bin Laden was one of these Taliban warriors
Colonial rule was ending – fear that Communism would spread here
U.S. supported dictator in Congo after Belgians left – Joseph Mobutu
Angola Civil War – U.S. and Soviets supported opposite sides in a war that lasted from 1975 to 1991
Chile – U.S. supported rebels who were against Socialist leader Salvador Allende – overthrew him in 1973
Grenada – U.S. overthrows a communist government in 1983
Non-aligned nations – started popping up in 1950s to stay off either side and promote interests of poorer nations
Arms Control – to ease tensions U.S. and Soviet Union begin to limit the amount of nuclear wars
Open Skies Treaty – 1955 – Allows U.S. and Soviet Union to flyover the others territory to get info about weapons
Test Ban Treaty – 1963 – outlawed the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere
SALT I – 1968 – President Nixon wanted a détente (reduction of tension) between the superpowers and the Strategic Arms Limitations Talks led to ABM (Anti-Ballistic Missile) Treaty which led to ban on weapons designed to shoot down nuclear missiles – prevent nuclear war because it kept deterrent in place
SALT II – led to arms control treaty of 1979
INF Treaty – 1988 – Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty led to the elimination of certain types of missiles