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Chapter 7: Conditioning and Learning

Chapter 7: Conditioning and Learning

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Chapter 7: Conditioning and Learning

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  1. Chapter 7: Conditioning and Learning

  2. Learning: Some Key Terms • Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience • Does NOT include temporary changes due to disease, injury, maturation, injury, or drugs, since these do NOT qualify as learning • Reinforcement: Any event that increases the probability that a response will recur

  3. Learning: Some More Key Terms • Response: Any identifiable behavior • Internal: Faster heartbeat • Observable: Eating, scratching

  4. Learning: Two More Key Terms • Antecedents: Events that precede a response • Consequences: Effects that follow a response

  5. Classical Conditioning • Ivan Pavlov: Russian physiologist who initially was studying digestion • Used dogs to study salivation when dogs were presented with meat powder • Also known as Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning • Reflex: Automatic, nonlearned response

  6. Figure 7.3

  7. Table 7.1

  8. Basics of Classical Conditioning

  9. Principles of Classical Conditioning • Acquisition: Training period when a response is strengthened • Higher Order Conditioning: A conditioned stimulus is used to reinforce further learning • Expectancy: Anticipation concerning future events or relationships

  10. More Classical Conditioning Terms • Extinction: Weakening of a conditioned response through removal of reinforcement • Spontaneous Recovery: Reappearance of a learned response following apparent extinction

  11. Figure 7.4

  12. Figure 7.5

  13. More Principles of Classical Conditioning • Stimulus Generalization: A tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar, but not identical to, a conditioned stimulus (e.g., responding to a buzzer or a hammer banging when the conditioning stimulus was a bell) • Stimulus Discrimination: The learned ability to respond differently to similar stimuli (e.g., Anya will respond differently to various bells: alarms, school, timer)

  14. Features and Phases of Classical Conditioning

  15. Figure 7.6

  16. Classical Conditioning in Humans • Phobia: Intense, unrealistic, irrational fear of a specific situation or object (e.g., arachnophobia, fear of spiders) • Conditioned Emotional Response (CER): Learned emotional reaction to a previously neutral stimulus

  17. Classical Conditioning in Human (cont.) • Desensitization: Exposing phobic people gradually to feared stimuli while they stay calm and relaxed • Vicarious Classical Conditioning: Learning to respond emotionally to a stimulus by observing another’s emotional reactions

  18. Figure 7.7

  19. Operant Conditioning (Instrumental Learning) • Learning based on the consequences of responding; we associate responses with their consequences • Law of Effect (Thorndike): The probability of a response is altered by the effect it has; responses that lead to desired effects are repeated; those that lead to undesired effects are not

  20. More Operant Conditioning Terms • Operant Reinforcer: Any event that follows a response and increases its likelihood of recurring • Conditioning Chamber (Skinner Box): Apparatus designed to study operant conditioning in animals • Response-Contingent Reinforcement: Reinforcement given only when a particular response occurs

  21. Rat in a Skinner Box

  22. Figure 7.8

  23. Figure 7.9

  24. Timing of Reinforcement • Operant reinforcement most effective when given immediately after a correct response • Effectiveness of reinforcement is inversely related to time elapsed after correct response occurs • Response Chain: A linked series of actions that leads to reinforcement

  25. Timing of Reinforcement (cont.) • Superstitious Behavior: Behavior that is repeated to produce reinforcement, even though it is not necessary • Shaping: Molding responses gradually in a step-by-step fashion to a desired pattern • Successive Approximations: Ever-closer matches

  26. Operant Extinction • Definition: When learned responses that are NOT reinforced gradually fade away • Negative Attention Seeking: Using misbehavior to gain attention

  27. Figure 7.10

  28. Figure 7.12

  29. More Operant Conditioning Terms • Positive Reinforcement: When a response is followed by a reward or other positive event • Negative Reinforcement: When a response is followed by the removal of an unpleasant event (e.g., the bells in Fannie’s car stop when she puts the seatbelt on); ends discomfort

  30. Punishment • Any event that follows a response and decreases the likelihood of it recurring (e.g., a spanking) • Response Cost: Reinforcer or positive thing is removed (e.g., losing Xbox™ privileges)

  31. Figure 7.1

  32. Types of Reinforcers • Primary Reinforcer: Nonlearned and natural; satisfies physiological needs (e.g., food, water, sex) • Intracranial Stimulation (ICS): Natural primary reinforcer; involves direct electrical activation of brain’s “pleasure centers” • Secondary Reinforcer: Learned reinforcer (e.g., money, grades, approval, praise)

  33. More Reinforcer Types • Token Reinforcer: Tangible secondary reinforcer (e.g., money, gold stars, poker chips) • Social Reinforcer: Provided by other people (e.g., learned desires for attention and approval)

  34. Figure 7.14

  35. Figure 7.16

  36. Feedback and Knowledge of Results • Information about the effect a response had • Knowledge of Results (KR): Increased feedback; informational

  37. Programmed Instruction • Information is presented in small amounts, gives immediate practice, and provides continuous feedback • Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI): Learning is aided by computer-presented information and exercises • Educational Simulations: Explore imaginary situations or “microworld” that simulates real-world problems (e.g., “The Sims” computer simulation)

  38. Figure 7.17

  39. Figure 7.18

  40. Partial Reinforcement • Reinforcers do NOT follow every response • Schedules of Reinforcement: Plans for determining which responses will be reinforced • Continuous Reinforcement: A reinforcer follows every correct response • PartialReinforcement Effect: Responses acquired with partial reinforcement are very resistant to extinction

  41. Schedules of Partial Reinforcement • Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR): A set number of correct responses must be made to obtain a reinforcer • Variable Ratio Schedule (VR): Varied number of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcer

  42. Schedules of Partial Reinforcement (cont.) • Fixed Interval Schedule (FI): The first correct response made after a certain amount of time has elapsed is reinforced • Variable Interval Schedule (VI): Reinforcement is given for the first correct response made after a varied amount of time

  43. Figure 7.11

  44. Figure 7.19

  45. Stimulus Control • Stimulithat consistently precede a rewarded response tend to influence when and where the response will occur • Operant Stimulus Generalization: Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to those that preceded operant reinforcement

  46. Watson & Rayner’s Research with Little Albert

  47. Stimulus Control (cont.) • Operant Stimulus Discrimination: Occurs when one learns to differentiate between antecedent stimuli that signal either a reward or a nonreward • Discriminative Stimuli: Stimuli that precede reinforced and nonreinforced responses

  48. Punishment • Punisher: Any consequence that reduces the frequency of a target behavior • Keys: Timing, consistency, and intensity • Severe Punishment: Intense punishment, capable of suppressing a response for a long period • Mild Punishment: Weak punishment; usually slows responses temporarily

  49. Punishment Concepts • Aversive Stimulus: Stimulus that is painful or uncomfortable (e.g., a shock) • Escape Learning: Learning to make a response to end an aversive stimulus • Avoidance Learning: Learning to make a response to avoid, postpone, or prevent discomfort (e.g., not going to a doctor or dentist) • Punishment may also increase aggression

  50. Figure 7.22