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Chapter 5 Quality

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  1. Chapter 5 Quality

  2. Learning Objectives • Be Able to Apply Concepts in Learning Goals • Determine Product Reliability • Construct and Interpret Control Charts • Determine Process Capability • Be Able to Use Equations Listed in End of Chapter Equation Summary

  3. Continuous improvement Employee involvement Customer satisfaction TQMWheel

  4. Product/service design Process design Continuous improvement Employee involvement Customer satisfaction Problem-solving tools Purchasing Benchmarking TQMWheel

  5. Customer-DrivenDefinitions of Quality • Conformance to Specifications • Value • Fitness for Use • Support • Psychological Impressions

  6. The Costs of Poor Quality • Prevention Costs • Appraisal Costs • Internal Failure Costs • External Failure Costs

  7. EmployeeInvolvement • Cultural Change • Teams • Individual Development • Awards and Incentives

  8. Plan Act Do Check Deming Wheel

  9. Reliability Product reliability rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn) where rs = reliability of the complete product n = number of subsystems rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n

  10. Reliability Product reliability rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn) where rs = reliability of the complete product n = number of subsystems rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n

  11. Reliability Product reliability rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn) where rs = reliability of the complete product n = number of subsystems rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n rs = (0.99)(0.90)(0.85) = 0.76

  12. Reliability Product reliability rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn) where rs = reliability of the complete product n = number of subsystems rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n rs = (0.99)(0.90)(0.85) = 0.76

  13. Reliability Product reliability rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn) where rs = reliability of the complete product n = number of subsystems rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n rs = (0.99)(0.95)(0.90) = 0.85

  14. Reliability Product reliability rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn) where rs = reliability of the complete product n = number of subsystems rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n rs = (0.99)(0.95)(0.90) = 0.85

  15. QualityFunctionDeployment The House of Quality

  16. QualityFunctionDeployment Voice of the Customer

  17. QualityFunctionDeployment Competitive Analysis Voice of the Customer

  18. QualityFunctionDeployment Voice of the Engineer Competitive Analysis Voice of the Customer

  19. QualityFunctionDeployment Trade-offs Voice of the Engineer Competitive Analysis Voice of the Customer

  20. QualityFunctionDeployment Trade-offs Voice of the Engineer Competitive Analysis Voice of the Customer

  21. QualityFunctionDeployment Trade-offs Voice of the Engineer Competitive Analysis Voice of the Customer Correlations

  22. QualityFunctionDeployment Trade-offs Voice of the Engineer Competitive Analysis Voice of the Customer Correlations

  23. QualityFunctionDeployment Trade-offs Voice of the Engineer Competitive Analysis Voice of the Customer Correlations Technical Comparison

  24. QualityFunctionDeployment Trade-offs Voice of the Engineer Competitive Analysis Voice of the Customer Correlations Technical Comparison

  25. Benchmarking • Planning • Analysis • Integration • Action

  26. Data Analysis Tools • Checklists • Histograms and Bar Charts • Pareto Charts • Scatter Diagrams • Cause-and-Effect Diagrams • Graphs

  27. Wellington Fiber Board Co. Tools for Improving Quality • Step 1—Checklist • Step 2—Pareto chart • Step 3—Cause-and-effect diagram • Step 4—Bar chart

  28. Wellington Fiber Board Co. Checklists Headliner Defects Defect type Tally Total A. Tears in fabric B. Discolored fabric C. Broken fiber board D. Ragged edges Total

  29. Wellington Fiber Board Co. Checklists Headliner Defects Defect type Tally Total A. Tears in fabric B. Discolored fabric C. Broken fiber board / D. Ragged edges Total

  30. Wellington Fiber Board Co. Checklists Headliner Defects Defect type Tally Total A. Tears in fabric B. Discolored fabric C. Broken fiber board // D. Ragged edges Total

  31. Wellington Fiber Board Co. Checklists Headliner Defects Defect type Tally Total A. Tears in fabric / B. Discolored fabric C. Broken fiber board // D. Ragged edges Total

  32. Wellington Fiber Board Co. Checklists Headliner Defects Defect type Tally Total A. Tears in fabric / B. Discolored fabric C. Broken fiber board // D. Ragged edges / Total

  33. Wellington Fiber Board Co. Checklists Headliner Defects Defect type Tally Total A. Tears in fabric //// 4 B. Discolored fabric /// 3 C. Broken fiber board //// //// //// //// //// //// //// / 36 D. Ragged edges //// // 7 Total 50

  34. Pareto Chart 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 80 60 40 20 0 Cumulative percentage Number of defects Defect type Wellington Fiber Board Co.

  35. 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 80 60 40 20 0 C Cumulative percentage Number of defects D A B Defect type Wellington Fiber Board Co. Pareto Chart

  36. 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 80 60 40 20 0 C Cumulative percentage Number of defects D A B Defect type Wellington Fiber Board Co. Pareto Chart

  37. People Materials Training Absenteeism Communication Out of specification Not available Broken fiber board Machine maintenance Machine speed Wrong setup Humidity Schedule changes Other Process Wellington Fiber Board Co. Cause-and-Effect Diagram

  38. Wellington Fiber Board Co. 20 15 10 5 0 Bar Chart Number of broken fiber boards First Second Third Shift

  39. Mean Process distribution 425 Grams Sample Means and the Process Distribution

  40. Mean Distribution of sample means 425 Grams Sample Means and the Process Distribution Process distribution

  41. Control Charts UCL Nominal LCL

  42. Control Charts UCL Nominal LCL 1 2 3 Samples

  43. Control Charts UCL Nominal LCL 1 2 3 Samples

  44. Control Charts UCL Nominal LCL Assignable causes likely 1 2 3 Samples

  45. Using Control Charts for Process Improvement • Measure the process • When changes are indicated, find the assignable cause • Eliminate problems, incorporate improvements • Repeat the cycle

  46. Control Chart Examples UCL Nominal Variations LCL Sample number

  47. Control Chart Examples UCL Nominal Variations LCL Sample number

  48. Control Chart Examples UCL Nominal Variations LCL Sample number

  49. Control Chart Examples UCL Nominal Variations LCL Sample number

  50. Control Chart Examples UCL Nominal Variations LCL Sample number