The Civil War 1861-1865 A Ride for Liberty-The Fugitive Slaves by Eastman Johnson
The Election of 1860 • Charleston Democratic Convention • 2/3rds rule and southern opposition to Stephen A. Douglas keep Democrats from selecting nominee • Democrats split at Baltimore Convention • Southern Rights Democratic Party nominates John C. Breckinridge • Regular Democrats go with Douglas • Constitutional Union Party • John Bell
1858 Debates: “House Divided” Speech • A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently, half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect the house to fall — but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing or all the other. Either the opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it, and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in the course of ultimate extinction; or its advocates will push it forward, till it shall become alike lawful in all the States, old as well as new — North as well as South.
Republicans needed 2 out of Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Indiana William H. Seward “Higher law” speech (1850) “Irrepressible Conflict” (1858) Abraham Lincoln Republican platform Exclusion of slavery from territories Higher tariffs Homestead Act Federal aid for internal improvements The Republicans Nominate Lincoln
Southern Fears • “Black Republicanism” • Implications for the South if Lincoln wins • Results • Lincoln received less than 40% of popular vote • Won electoral college by substantial margin
The War Begins • Lincoln inaugurated in March 1861 as the first Republican president • Assured southerners that he would not interfere in slavery. • Warned that no state had the right to break up the Union.
Compromise Proposals • John J. Crittenden • Crittenden Compromise • Lincoln opposed • “peace convention” – hope for the 8 remaining slave states to reject secession • None of the secessionist states would consider a compromise
Fort Sumter • Located in the harbor of Charleston, it was cut off from supplies by the South. • Lincoln announced he would send supplies. • South fired upon the fort on April 12, 1861 and it surrendered to the South after 2 days.
Use of Executive Power • Extended use of executive powers and powers as commander in chief without approval from Congress. • Called for 75,000 volunteers to put down the “insurrection” in the South. • Authorized spending for the war. • Suspended the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus.
Secession of the Upper South • Before Fort Sumter, only 7 states had seceded. • VA, NC, TN, and AR only seceded after it became clear Lincoln would use force. • Capital: Richmond
The Border States • Delaware firmly union • Northern occupation of Maryland • Missouri • “bushwhackers” vs. “jayhawkers” • Unionists win elections in Kentucky and Maryland
Keeping the Border States in the Union • DE, MD, MO, and KY remained in the Union because of Union sentiment and the use of troops in these areas. • Guerrilla forces were active throughout the war. • Their loss would have increased the Confederacy’s population by 50 percent and hurt the North’s military position.
The Creation of West Virginia • Fifth Union border state • Delegates from western part of Virginia had voted against secession • Wanted to break away from state of Virginia • West Virginia became a new state and entered the Union, 1863
The Confederate States of America • modeled after the U.S. Constitution • Non-successive 6 year term for the presidency • presidential item veto • Jefferson Davis attempted to increase presidential powers, but failed. • “States’ rights” turned into a problem for the South.
Mobilizing for War • “citizen soldiers” • Four-fifths of soldiers on both sides were volunteers, despite both sides passing conscription acts • Not professionally trained soldiers • Egalitarian attitudes • Lacking in discipline
The Balance Sheet of War • Enlistment of Black soldiers • Union allowed it • Confederacy did not, until the end of the war • Advantages: • North much greater population • Northern economic superiority • Southern military prowess • Neither side anticipated length or intensity of the Civil War
Strategy and Morale • Union faced vast geographic territory of the South to invade and conquer • Confederacy required withstanding and outlasting Northern efforts • Confederacy had superior morale
Weapons and Tactics • Rifles • “minié ball” • Rapid load and fire • Greater accuracy
Logistics • Civil War considered 1st modern logistical war • Railroads, steam-powered ships, telegraph • Vulnerable communications and supply lines • Inland: dependence on animal-powered transport • Horses, mules • Confederacy improvised well, but had too little to work with • As war progressed, northern economy grew stronger, southern economy grew weaker
Financing the War • Confederacy • Treasury notes and inflation • Union • Most funds raised by bonds • Legal Tender Act (1862) and “greenbacks” • National Banking Act of 1863
First Battle of Bull Run (July 1861) • 30,000 federal troops marched from D.C. to Manassas Junction, VA • Confederates under Stonewall Jackson counter attacked and forced the Union to retreat • The battle ended the illusion of a short war and promoted the myth that the Confederates were invincible. • George B. McClellan: too cautious
Union Strategy: General Winfield Scott • Use the U.S. navy to blockade all southern ports (Anaconda Plan) • Divide the Confederacy in two by controlling the Mississippi River. • Raise and train 500,000 soldiers to take Richmond.
Peninsula Campaign • McClellan, the new commander of the Union in the East, insisted on a long period of training. • Invaded VA in March 1862 and was stopped by Lee’s superior tactics. • McClellan was forced to retreat after five months and was replaced by General John Pope.
Second Battle of Bull Run • Attention focused on Virginia • Lee attacked Pope before McClellan could assist with reinforcements • Union forces retreat • Lee continued to invade Maryland • Serious consequences: • Maryland might fall to the Confederates • Democrats could gain control of Congress • Britain and France might recognize the Confederacy
Antietam (September 1862) • Lee moved into Maryland in the hope that a win in the North would convince Britain to support the South. • Lincoln had given back the Union command to McClellan. • Union intercepted the Confederates at Antietam Creek in Sharpsburg, MD. • Bloodiest day of war: 22,000 killed or wounded. • Lee retreated to VA. • Lincoln blamed McClellan for not pursuing Lee and removed him as commander for a final time. • Although a draw, it did stop the Confederates from getting support from Britain. • Used this partial win as the basis for the Emancipation Proclamation.
Fredericksburg • Ambrose Burnside replaced McClellan. • Burnside attacked at Fredericksburg, VA and lost 12,000 to the Confederate’s 5,000.
Monitor vs. Merrimac (March 1862) • The Merrimac was a former Union ship rebuilt as an ironclad, renamed the Virginia, and used to sink Union ships. • The Union built its own ironclad, the Monitor, and fought a five hour battle with the Merrimac near Hampton Roads, VA. • The battle was a draw, but allowed the Union to keep its Anaconda Plan in place. • Revolutionized naval warfare
Grant in the West • In early 1862, Grant used a combination of gunboats and army maneuvers to capture Forts Henry and Donelson on the Cumberland River. • 14,000 Confederates were taken prisoner and opened up the Mississippi to Union attack. • The Confederates under Albert Johnston surprised Grant at Shiloh, TN, but Grant forced the Confederate retreat after over 23,000 were killed and wounded. • The capture of New Orleans by Union naval commander David Farragut aided Grant’s drive down the Mississippi.
Foreign Affairs and Diplomacy • Trent Affair • Confederate diplomats James Mason and John Slidell were on way to Britain aboard the Trent. • Union warship stopped the Trent and brought Mason and Slidell back as prisoners of war. • Britain threatened war unless they were released.
Confederate Raiders • Confederates purchased British ships for raiding. • U.S. minister to Britain, Charles Francis Adams, convinced the British to stop selling ships to the Confederates.
Failure of Cotton Diplomacy • Britain was able to get cotton from Egypt and India. • The Emancipation Proclamation appealed to the British.
The End of Slavery • Lincoln was hesitant over the issue of slavery. • wanted support of border states • constitutional protection was needed to end slavery • prejudices of northerners • fear that it could be overturned in the next election
Confiscation Acts • Union Army could confiscate Confederate property. • Thousands of escaped slaves fled to Union camps.
Emancipation Proclamation • Lincoln portrayed emancipation as a means to saving the Union • Did not go into effect until 1-1-1863 • Only freed slaves in areas under rebellion • Excluded states that did not secede • Excluded states that were occupied already
Freedmen in the War • ¼ of slaves walked away from slavery to seek protection of the Union Army • 200,000 African –Americans served in the Union Army
The Rise of the Copperheads • Lincoln’s support waned significantly in winter, 1863 • Clement L. Vallandigham, of Ohio • Powerful Peace Democratic spokesman • Arrested and convicted for treason and aiding and abetting the enemy • Banished to the Confederacy for his sentence • Runs for governor of Ohio from exile in Canada, but loses
Economic Problems in the South • South suffered from food shortages and hyperinflation • Richmond Bread Riot (1863)
The Wartime Draft and Class Tensions • Confederate draft • paid substitutes and used slaves • “rich man’s war, poor man’s fight” • Union draft • Bounty jumpers • Substitutes • Democrats inflame tensions over draft • New York City Draft Riot (1863) • Class tensions
Blueprint for Modern America • 37th Congress • Homestead Act • Morrill Land-Grant College Act • Pacific Railroad Act
Women and the War • Female casualties • Clerical jobs open to women in the north • Clara Barton • Women’s Central Association for Relief • Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell • United States Sanitary Commission • National Woman Suffrage Association • Elizabeth Cady Stanton • Susan B. Anthony