chapter 3 personality perception attribution nelson quick n.
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Chapter 3 Personality, Perception, & Attribution Nelson & Quick
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  1. Chapter 3 Personality, Perception,& Attribution Nelson & Quick

  2. The Person • skills & abilities • personality • perception • attribution • attitudes • values • ethics Variables Influencing Individual Behavior

  3. The Person • skills & abilities • personality • perception • attribution • attitudes • values • ethics • The Environment • organization • work group • job • personal life Variables Influencing Individual Behavior

  4. The Person • skills & abilities • personality • perception • attribution • attitudes • values • ethics • The Environment • organization • work group • job • personal life Behavior Variables Influencing Individual Behavior

  5. The Person • skills & abilities • personality • perception • attribution • attitudes • values • ethics • The Environment • organization • work group • job • personal life Behavior B = f(P,E) Interactional Psychology Approach

  6. Definition of Personality Personality- A relatively stable set of characteristics that influences an individual’s behavior

  7. Personality Theories Trait Theory - understand individuals by breaking down behavior patterns into observable traits Psychodynamic Theory - emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behavior Humanistic Theory - emphasizes individual growth and improvement Integrative Approach - describes personality as a composite of an individual’s psychological processes

  8. Big Five Personality Traits Sources: P.T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, The NEO_PI Personality Inventory (Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1992) and J.F. Salgado, “The Five Factor Model of Personality and Job Performance in the European Community,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 82 (1997): 30-43.)

  9. People and circumstances control my fate! I control what happens to me! Personality Characteristics in Organizations Locus of Control External Internal

  10. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self-Efficacy - belief and expectations about one’s ability to accomplish a specific task effectively Sources of self-efficacy • Prior experiences • Behavior models (observing success) • Persuasion • Assessment of current physical & emotional capabilities

  11. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self - Esteem Feelings of Self Worth Success tends to increase self-esteem Failure tends to decrease self-esteem

  12. High self monitors flexible: adjust behavior according to the situation and the behavior of others can appear unpredictable & inconsistent Low self monitors act from internal states rather than from situational cues show consistency less likely to respond to work group norms or supervisory feedback Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self - Monitoring Behavior based on cues from people & situations

  13. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Positive Affect - An individual’s tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general Negative Affect - An individual’s tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general

  14. Personality Characteristics in Organizations A strong situation can overwhelm the effects of individual personalities by providing strong cues for appropriate behavior

  15. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Strong personalities will dominate in a weak situation

  16. How is Personality Measured? Projective Test - elicits an individual’s response to abstract stimuli Behavioral Measures - personality assessments that involve observing an individual’s behavior in a controlled situation Self-Report Questionnaire - assessment involving an individual’s responses to questions Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - instrument measuring Jung’s theory of individual differences.

  17. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator • Based on Carl Jung’s work • People are fundamentally different • People are fundamentally alike • People have preference combinations for extraversion/introversion, perception, judgment • Briggs & Myers developed the MBTI to understand individual differences

  18. MBTI Preferences

  19. Social Perception - interpreting information about another person Social Perception

  20. Social Perception - interpreting information about another person • Perceiver Characteristics • Familiarity with target • Attitudes/Mood • Self-Concept • Cognitive structure Social Perception

  21. Target Characteristics • Physical appearance • Verbal communication • Nonverbal cues • Intentions Social Perception Social Perception - interpreting information about another person • Perceiver Characteristics • Familiarity with target • Attitudes/Mood • Self-Concept • Cognitive structure

  22. Social Perception - interpreting information about another person • Perceiver Characteristics • Familiarity with target • Attitudes/Mood • Self-Concept • Cognitive structure • Target Characteristics • Physical appearance • Verbal communication • Nonverbal cues • Intentions • Situational Characteristics • Interaction context • Strength of situational cues Social Perception

  23. Social Perception - interpreting information about another person Barriers to Social Perception • Selective perception • Stereotyping • First-impression error • Implicit personality theory • Self-fulfilling prophecies

  24. Impression Management Impression Management -individuals try to control the impression others have of them • Name dropping • Appearance • Self-description • Flattery • Favors • Agreement with opinion

  25. Attribution Theory Attribution -explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of the behavior of themselves or others Information cues for attribution information gathering consensus • consensus • distinctiveness • consistency