Preparing for a Substitute • Make materials accessible. • Create a substitute folder or binder and keep it in an obvious location (top of desk, desk drawer).
Preparing for a Substitute • Suggestions for what to include in the folder: • Detailed schedule of classes (regular and special) and supervision assignment • Phone numbers for office, security, nurse, other teachers • Names and schedules of students who leave the room during the day for special reasons • Names of students with special needs or disabilities • Seating chart/squad spots • Procedures for reporting student absences, lunch, etc. • Lesson plans (Include an emergency lesson plan in case regular lesson plans don't make it to the sub.) • Your classroom rules and discipline procedures • Names and schedules of aides and/or volunteers • Names of students who can be depended on to help • Names and location of teachers to call on for help • Procedures for dealing with sick or injured children • Floor plan of the building • Procedures for emergency drills
Preparing for a Substitute • Help them call students by name. • Take a picture of the entire class, just boys and just girls, or individual squads and label a printout of the picture with student names. If a substitute knows students names, the students are much more likely to behave.
Preparing for a Substitute • Communication and Feedback. • Tell students you are going to absent but make them aware they are still responsible for behaving properly. You can offer the class a reward if the substitute gives a glowing report. You may assign one or two “helpers” to assist the substitute in each period. Be sure to communicate the names of student helpers to the substitute in the materials folder. Ask substitutes to write a brief report (one paragraph) about each class period including specifics and student names whenever possible.
Preparing for a Substitute • Plan enough activities for the entire period. Even better is to provide extra activities. • May want to have material that is handed in at the end of the period
Table Work • Make a list of ways you challenged (aka tortured) subs during your K-12 school years. • Separate sheet with your names
Responses • Merry go round of bathroom requests/extended (nurse) • Leaving class and not coming back • Sitting in non-assigned seat (pretend to be someone else) • Spitballs • Invite non-class members to attend (skipping) • Try and get upset/loose cool (dumb answers) • Call by first name • Work is already done/nap time • All work is group work • Challenge authority/personal Q’s
Being an Effective Substitute • **It is becoming increasingly difficult for school districts to find quality substitute teachers. Therefore, if you perform well, your chances of employment are improved.
Pay varies by degree, years of service, and type of employment. • Long term substitute – varies but typically over 10-20 consecutive days. Pay rate increases, sometimes to a level comparable with beginning teachers. • Daily substitutes • Coordinated through an office in the school district • Coordinated through an outside agency such as Kelly Educational Staffing • http://kelly.aesoponline.com/login.asp or http://www.kellyeducationalstaffing • Can sign up for jobs in advance via a website or receive calls either from a computer or staffing personnel
Being an Effective Substitute • Often a stepping stone to a salaried position but for others, a full-time job • If possible, substitute in a district which you are interested in or will have an opening within the next couple years. • Hang out in the teacher’s room during breaks or visit the gym. • May need to get first teaching job in an urban or disadvantaged school district to get some experience before moving on to more competitive schools.
Being an Effective Substitute • Training (from NEA.org) • 89 percent of the districts provided little or no training for substitutes • 93 percent offered little or no training for regular teachers in how to use substitutes. • 69 percent of the districts did not formally evaluate substitutes
Being an Effective Substitute • Tips for Being an Effective Substitute • Follow the teacher’s lesson plan (major complaint of regular teachers) • Provide a write-up at the end of the day. This may be a simple statement that all classes went well or be detailed and include any problems, deviations from the lesson, etc. • Provide your name so teachers may request you by name • Leave the room, materials, and equipment the way you found it • Set your behavior expectations early in the day and stick to them, or the kids will, most likely, take advantage of you
Being an Effective Substitute • Tips for Being an Effective Substitute • During attendance, make a note of the names of students you believe might cause trouble. • Have a good game-face – look sincere and firm, yet approachable • “never let them see you sweat” • Bring some fun extra things the students can do when, and only when, their work is done. This could be a whole-class or individual activity. • Make a discipline plan and announce expectations at the start of class • Example: Only allow bathroom breaks during the last 10 minutes of class (depends on the school) or make students sign their names and times (verify they are signing their name)
Being an Effective Substitute • Tips for Being an Effective Substitute • Talk to students when they arrive for class, build the rapport early. • Arrive to school early for a myriad of reasons: • Getting lost on the way, finding/reviewing the sub plans, adjusting the plans if necessary, setting up the room to minimize behavior problems (desks, materials), difficulty accessing the room, etc • Have a reward for the class if it meets your expectations • Have “bell work” students can begin once they enter the room. More structured time means less off-task time.
Being an Effective Substitute • Tips for Being an Effective Substitute • Write your name on the board • Have a log sheet students must sign, communicate this during introduction • Elementary only: • Come prepared with stickers or rewards • Stick to routines as much as possible but remind students that doing things differently can be fun. • May have one student be the teacher’s assistant. Students love the opportunity and know the ins and outs of the classroom.
Being an Effective Substitute Behavior Management • When management issues arise, many of the same principles used in the gymnasium also work in the classroom. • Some differences: • Can rearrange student seating • Hallway conference
Resources • Substitute Teaching Handbook • Dearing, GA • Kansas City, KA • Charlottesville, VA
Resources • http://www.nea.org/teachexperience/subk030417.html • http://www.qnet.com/~rsturgn/index.htm • http://www.kdp.org/teacherresources/substituteteaching.php • http://users.erols.com/interlac/subtch.htm • http://www.education-world.com/preservice/classroom/substitute.shtml • http://www.lps.org/hr/handbooks/subteacher/default.html