Unification of Germany. Napoleon Impacts Germany:.
Between 1807 and 1812, Napoleon made major changes to the territorial states of Germany. He gained a number of European lands and put many German -speaking states under French rule. (In red) Many Germans welcomed him because they liked his policies. But soon, extreme German nationalism arose!!!
Instead, the group formed a German Confederation, which was a very weak body headed by Austria.
Prussia, took over control of the German states in the 1830’s from Austria. Trying to create an economic union, they took away borders between the German states. They still remained politically separate though.
German confederation made up of 39 separate principalities– all German speaking
Set up powerful trade federation (customs union) with other German provinces – led to prosperity and being seen as dominant German state.
Prussian Junker class – Bismarck on the left
-The Prussian King in 1861was Wilhelm I, the brother of Frederick William.
-Wilhelm was an ultraconservative who believed in the Divine Right of Kings.
-King Wilhelm I’s prime minister was a good friend of his, a conservative noble named Otto Von Bismarck.
Voltaire once said:
“Prussia is not a country with an army, but an army with a country!”
Bismarck wanted to use this army to unite the German people under Prussian leadership.
The Austro-Prussian war of 1866
Bismarck excluded Napoleon III from treaty negotiations (between Prussia and Austria)
Napoleon was looking for territory in the Rhineland as reward for staying neutral while Prussia fought AustriaTension After 7 Weeks’ War - Prussia v Austria, 1866
A United Germany
A constitution proposed by Bismarck and a two house legislature was set up for the Second Reich.
Otto von Bismarck, 1886.
1862 – William I
Head of cabinet
1818 – Prussia eliminates tariffs
1866- 7 Weeks’ War;
Dissolved; Prussia takes Schleswig & Holstein
1848 – Revolution &
1870 - Franco-Prussian War;
1864 – Austria &
Germany defeat Denmark:
Austria takes Schleswig,
Prussia takes Holstein
1819 - Carlsbad Decrees
1844 – Zollverein includes
Almost all German states